tm2318800-1_s3 - none - 5.4788774s
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As filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission on July 18, 2023
Registration No. 333-      
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
Atreca, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
27-3723255
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
835 Industrial Road, Suite 400,
San Carlos, CA 94070
(650) 595-2595
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
John A. Orwin
President and Chief Executive Officer
Atreca, Inc.
835 Industrial Road, Suite 400,
San Carlos, CA 94070
(650) 595-2595
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
John T. McKenna
Justin Kisner
Cooley LLP
3175 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, California 94304
(650) 843-5000
Courtney Phillips
General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
Atreca, Inc.
835 Industrial Road, Suite 400,
San Carlos, CA 94070
(650) 595-2595
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ☐
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ☐
Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☒
Smaller reporting company ☒
Emerging growth company ☒
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐
The Registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

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EXPLANATORY NOTE
This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale of the registrant’s Class A common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and/or warrants; and

a sales agreement prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $11,399,000 of the registrant’s Class A common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under a sales agreement dated July 18, 2023, by and between the registrant and Cowen and Company, LLC.
The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any security to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus.
The prospectus relating to the sales agreement immediately follows the base prospectus. The Class A common stock that may be offered, issued and sold by the Company under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $300,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by the Company under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC, any portion of the $11,399,000 included in the sales agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement, and if no shares are sold under the sales agreement, the full $11,399,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.
 

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The information contained in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JULY 18, 2023
PROSPECTUS
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_atreca-4c.jpg]
$300,000,000
Class A Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
We may, from time to time, offer and sell up to $300,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in combination, at prices and on terms described in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also offer Class A common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of debt securities, or Class A common stock upon conversion of preferred stock, or Class A common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon exercise of warrants.
To the extent shares of our common stock are purchased by certain investors, such shares may initially be issued in the form of Class B common stock that will be convertible into an equivalent number of shares of our Class A common stock. The public offering price of and underwriting discount, if any, on such shares of Class B common stock will be identical to the shares of Class A common stock otherwise offered hereby. References to Class A common stock being offered hereby include the shares of Class A common stock into which shares of our Class B common stock purchased in this offering are convertible.
The rights of the holders of Class A common stock and Class B common stock are identical, except with respect to voting and conversion. Each share of Class A common stock is entitled to one vote and shares of Class B common stock are non-voting, except as may be required by law. Each share of Class B common stock may be converted at any time into one share of Class A common stock at the option of its holder, subject to the ownership limitations provided for in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation.
This prospectus describes some of the general terms that may apply to an offering of our securities. We will provide the specific terms of these offerings and securities in one or more supplements to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference, before buying any of the securities being offered.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
Securities may be sold by us to or through underwriters or dealers, directly to purchasers or through agents designated from time to time. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters and any applicable discounts or commissions will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.
Our Class A common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “BCEL.” On July 17, 2023, the last reported sale price of our Class A common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market was $1.00 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to other listings, if any, on the Nasdaq Global Select Market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus on page 6 and in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q incorporated by reference into this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
We are an “emerging growth company” under the federal securities laws and are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements.
The date of this prospectus is        , 2023.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, using a “shelf” registration process under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under this shelf registration statement, we may sell from time to time in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $300,000,000 of Class A common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination with other securities as described in this prospectus. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.
Each time we sell any type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. We may also add, update or change in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the additional information described under “Where You Can Find More Information,” before buying any of the securities being offered.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
We have not authorized anyone to provide you with any information other than contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, along with the information contained in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should not assume that the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or in any such free writing prospectus is accurate as of any date other than their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
This prospectus contains and incorporates by reference market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information.
 
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Although we believe that these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. Although we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the market and industry data presented in this prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference, these estimates involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.
This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the section titled “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Except as otherwise indicated herein or as the context otherwise requires, references in this prospectus to “Atreca,” “the company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar references refer to Atreca, Inc., a corporation under the laws of the State of Delaware.
This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus are the property of their respective owners.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated by reference herein and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, before making your investment decision.
Atreca, Inc.
Overview
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company utilizing our differentiated platform primarily to discover and develop novel antibody-based therapeutics to treat a range of solid tumor types. While more traditional oncology drug discovery approaches attempt to generate antibodies against known targets, our approach relies on the human immune system to direct us to unique antibody-target pairs from patients experiencing a clinically meaningful, active immune response against their tumors. These unique antibody-target pairs represent a potentially novel and previously unexplored landscape of oncology targets. We believe the fact that our approach has the potential to deliver novel, previously unexplored oncology targets provides us with a significant competitive advantage over traditional approaches, which focus on known targets that many companies are aware of and can pursue. We have utilized our drug discovery approach to identify over 2,000 distinct human antibodies that bind preferentially to tumor tissue from patients who are not the source of the antibody.
Corporate Information
We were incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware in June 2010. Our principal executive offices are located at 835 Industrial Road Suite 400, San Carlos, CA 94070. Our telephone number is (650) 595-2595. Our website address is www.atreca.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider information on our website to be part of this prospectus.
The Atreca design logo, ‘‘Atreca” and our other common law or registered trademarks, service marks or trade names appearing in this prospectus are the property of Atreca, Inc. Other trademarks, service marks or trade names used in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.
Risks Associated with our Business
Our business is subject to numerous risks, as described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and Smaller Reporting Company
We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, and therefore we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various public company reporting requirements, including not being required to have our internal control over financial reporting audited by our independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this prospectus, our periodic reports and our proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.235 billion or more during such fiscal year, (ii) the date on which we have
 
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issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt in the prior three-year period, (iii) December 31, 2024, or (iv) the last day of the fiscal year in which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may still qualify as a “smaller reporting company,” which would allow us to take advantage of many of the same exemptions from disclosure requirements including reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this prospectus and our periodic reports and proxy statements.
We are also a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company even after we are no longer an emerging growth company. We may take advantage of certain of the scaled disclosures available to smaller reporting companies and will be able to take advantage of these scaled disclosures for so long as our Class A common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter, or our annual revenue is less than $100.0 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and our Class A common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter.
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THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER
We may offer shares of our Class A common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination, with a total dollar amount up to $300,000,000 from time to time under this prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined at the time of any offering. We may also offer Class A common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

designation or classification;

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

maturity;

original issue discount;

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends;

redemption, conversion, exercise, exchange or sinking fund terms;

ranking;

restrictive covenants;

voting or other rights;

conversion or exchange prices or rates and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange; and

a discussion of material United States federal income tax considerations, if any.
The applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We, and our agents, underwriters or dealers reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities to or through agents, underwriters or dealers, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

the names of those agents, underwriters or dealers;

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

the net proceeds to us, if any.
Class A Common Stock
We may issue shares of our Class A common stock from time to time. Each holder of our Class A common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders, including the election of directors. Under our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or certificate of incorporation, and amended and restated bylaws, or bylaws, our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights. Because of this, the holders of a majority of the shares of Class A common stock entitled to
 
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vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose. Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then-outstanding preferred stock, holders of Class A common stock and holders of Class B common stock are entitled to receive ratably those dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by our board of directors out of legally available funds. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of Class A common stock and holders of Class B common stock are entitled to share ratably in the net assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all of our debts and other liabilities and the satisfaction of any liquidation preference granted to the holders of any then-outstanding shares of preferred stock. Holders of Class A common stock have no preemptive, conversion or subscription rights and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the Class A common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of Class A common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate in the future. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the Class A common stock under “Description of Capital Stock — Class A Common Stock.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to any Class A common stock being offered.
Preferred Stock
We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. Our board of directors will determine the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, including dividend rights, conversion rights, preemptive rights, terms of redemption or repurchase, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting any series or the designation of any series, or the designation of such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of our Class A common stock. Convertible preferred stock will be convertible into our Class A common stock or exchangeable for other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at your option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.
If we sell any series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of such series of preferred stock, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock that we are offering before the issuance of the related series of preferred stock. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the preferred stock under “Description of Capital Stock — Preferred Stock.” We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.
Debt Securities
We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible or exchangeable debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for our Class A common stock or our other securities. Conversion or exchange may be mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) and would be at prescribed conversion or exchange rates.
Any debt securities issued under this prospectus will be issued under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities under “Description of Debt Securities.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indenture and any supplemental indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. A form of indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement
 
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of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.
Warrants
We may issue warrants for the purchase of Class A common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or in combination with Class A common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants under “Description of Warrants.” We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as any warrant agreements and warrant certificates, as applicable, that contain the terms of the warrants. We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants.
Any warrants issued under this prospectus may be evidenced by warrant certificates. Warrants also may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.
Use of Proceeds
Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectus we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the shares of our securities offered by us hereunder, if any, for working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and discussed under the section entitled “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face, but those that we consider to be material. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our Class A common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also read carefully the section below titled “Forward-Looking Statements.”
 
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains forward-looking statements about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our future results of operations or financial condition, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “will” or “would” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:

the initiation, timing, progress and results of our research and development programs, preclinical studies, any clinical trials and investigational new drug, or IND, and other regulatory submissions;

our expectations regarding the activity of ATRC-101 or potential future product candidates once administered in a human subject;

our expectations and beliefs regarding the market for cancer therapies and development of the immuno-oncology industry;

our ability to identify and develop product candidates for treatment of additional disease indications;

our or a potential future collaborator’s ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of any of our current or potential future product candidates;

the rate and degree of market acceptance of any approved product candidates;

the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business, technologies, and current or potential future product candidates;

our financial condition;

our or any potential future collaborator’s ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our discovery platform and current or potential future product candidates and our ability to operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights of others;

anticipated synergies resulting from our collaborations;

the effect of macroeconomic conditions, including but not limited to the COVID-19 pandemic, inflation, uncertain credit and global financial markets and geopolitical events; and

our use of net proceeds to us from this offering.
You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and operating results. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus. The results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements. You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part, that we have filed with the SEC with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance and achievements may be materially different from what we expect.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this prospectus. While we believe that information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, that information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive
 
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inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.
The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this prospectus to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital and general corporate purposes, which may include, among other things, funding research and development activities.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
General
The following description summarizes the most important terms of our capital stock. Because it is only a summary, it does not contain all the information that may be important to you. For a complete description of the matters set forth in this “Description of Capital Stock,” you should refer to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, which are included as exhibits to our Annual Report on Form 10-K, and to the applicable provisions of Delaware law.
Our authorized capital stock consists of 650,000,000 shares of Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, 50,000,000 shares of Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value per share and 300,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share.
Class A Common Stock
As of March 31, 2023, 32,441,143 shares of Class A common stock were outstanding. All outstanding shares of Class A common stock are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid, and nonassessable. All authorized but unissued shares of our Class A common stock are available for issuance by our board of directors without any further stockholder action, except as required by the listing standards of the Nasdaq Stock Market.
Voting Rights
Except as otherwise expressly provided in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or as required by applicable law, on any matter that is submitted to a vote by our stockholders, holders of our Class A common stock are entitled to one vote per share of Class A common stock, including for the election of directors. We have not provided for cumulative voting rights for our Class A common stock in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation.
Conversion Rights
Holders of our Class A common stock have no conversion rights.
Economic Rights
Dividends and Distributions.   Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock are entitled to receive ratably those dividends, if any, as may be declared by the board of directors out of legally available funds.
Liquidation Rights.   In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of or provision for all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the prior rights of any preferred stock then outstanding.
Holders of our Class A common stock have no preemptive rights or other subscription rights and there are no redemption or sinking funds provisions applicable to our Class A common stock. The rights, preferences, and privileges of holders of Class A common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.
Class B Common Stock
As of March 31, 2023, 6,715,441 shares of Class B common stock were outstanding. All outstanding shares of Class B common stock are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid, and nonassessable.
Voting Rights
Except as otherwise expressly provided in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or as required by applicable law, on any matter that is submitted to a vote by our stockholders, holders of our
 
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Class B common stock are not entitled to any votes per share of Class B common stock, including for the election of directors. We have not provided for cumulative voting rights for our Class B common stock in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation.
Conversion Rights
Holders of our Class B common stock shall have the right to convert each share of our Class B common stock into one share of Class A common stock at such holder’s election, provided that as a result of such conversion, such holder would not beneficially own in excess of 4.99% of any class of our securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, unless otherwise as expressly provided for in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. However, this ownership limitation may be increased or decreased to any other percentage designated by such holder of Class B common stock upon 61 days’ notice to us.
Economic Rights
Dividends and Distributions.   Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, holders of our Class B common stock and Class A common stock are entitled to receive ratably those dividends, if any, as may be declared by the board of directors out of legally available funds.
Liquidation Rights.   In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of our Class B common stock and Class A common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of or provision for all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the prior rights of any preferred stock then outstanding.
Holders of our Class B common stock have no preemptive rights or other subscription rights and there are no redemption or sinking funds provisions applicable to our Class B common stock. The rights, preferences, and privileges of holders of Class B common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.
Preferred Stock
Under the terms of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 300,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each such series, to fix the dividend, voting and other rights, preferences and privileges of the shares of each wholly unissued series and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereon, and to increase or decrease the number of shares of any such series, but not below the number of shares of such series then outstanding.
Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in our control and may adversely affect the market price of the Class A common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock. We have no current plans to issue any shares of preferred stock.
We will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of the preferred stock of each series we issue under this prospectus, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of preferred stock being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

the title and stated value;

the number of shares we are offering;
 
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the liquidation preference per share;

the purchase price;

the dividend rate, period and payment date and method of calculation for dividends;

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

the procedures for any auction and remarketing;

the provisions for a sinking fund;

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, and, if applicable, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and the conversion period;

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and the exchange period;

voting rights of the preferred stock;

preemptive rights;

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment;

whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

a discussion of material United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

any limitations on the issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the preferred stock.
If we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, the shares will be fully paid and non-assessable.
The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock, and reduce the likelihood that holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. The issuance could have the effect of decreasing the market price of the Class A common stock. The issuance of preferred stock also could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.
Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of Delaware Law and Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws
Some provisions of Delaware law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that could make the following transactions more difficult: an acquisition of us by means of a tender offer; an acquisition of us by means of a proxy contest or otherwise; or the removal of our incumbent officers and directors. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish or could deter transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interest or in our best interests, including transactions which provide for payment of a premium over the market price for our shares.
These provisions, summarized below, are intended to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire
 
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control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of the increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging these proposals because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law
We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:

before such date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) those shares owned (1) by persons who are directors and also officers and (2) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; and

on or after such date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 6623% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.
In general, Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law defines “business combination” to include the following:

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; and

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.
In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as an entity or person who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status owned, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation.
The statute could prohibit or delay mergers or other takeover or change in control attempts and, accordingly, may discourage attempts to acquire us even though such a transaction may offer our stockholders the opportunity to sell their stock at a price above the prevailing market price.
Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides for our board of directors to be divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors is elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms. Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of Class A common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all
 
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of the directors standing for election, if they so choose, other than any directors that holders of any preferred stock we may issue may be entitled to elect. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation also provide that directors may be removed by the stockholders only for cause upon the affirmative vote of sixty-six and two-thirds percent (6623%) of the voting power of all then-outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote generally at an election of the directors.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide that no action shall be taken by our stockholders except at an annual or special meeting of stockholders called in accordance with our amended and restated bylaws, and no action of our stockholders shall be taken by written consent or electronic transmission. Our amended and restated bylaws also provides that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by our chairperson of the board, chief executive officer or president, or by a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors.
Our amended and restated bylaws also establishes advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals to be brought before a stockholder meeting and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of the board of directors or a committee of the board of directors.
The amendment of any of the above provisions, except for the provision making it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock, would require approval by holders of at least two-thirds of the total voting power of all of our outstanding voting stock.
The provisions of Delaware law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting hostile takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our Class A common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in the composition of our board and management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.
Choice of Forum
Our certificate of amended and restated incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law: (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or our directors, officers, or employees arising under the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws; and (iv) any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The provisions would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation further provides that the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act, subject to and contingent upon a final adjudication in the State of Delaware of the enforceability of such exclusive forum provision.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our Class A common stock and Class B common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent’s address is 250 Royall Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021-1011.
Listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market
Our Class A common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “BCEL.”
 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.
We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.
The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.
General
The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.
We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

the title of the series of debt securities;

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

the maturity date or dates;

the form of the debt securities of the series;

the applicability of any guarantees;

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;
 
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the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities; and the depositary for such global security or securities;

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and
 
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any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.
Conversion or Exchange Rights
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our Class A common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our Class A common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.
Consolidation, Merger or Sale
Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.
Events of Default under the Indenture
Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.
If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.
The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or
 
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events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.
Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.
A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request;

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.
These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.
We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.
Modification of Indenture; Waiver
We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities —  Consolidation, Merger or Sale;”

to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;
 
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to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities — General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.
In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.
Discharge
Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

provide for payment;

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

maintain paying agencies;

hold monies for payment in trust;

recover excess money held by the trustee;

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

appoint any successor trustee.
In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.
Form, Exchange and Transfer
We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book-entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any
 
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series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.
Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.
We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.
If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.
Information Concerning the Trustee
The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.
Payment and Paying Agents
Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.
We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.
All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.
Governing Law
The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is applicable.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplement and free writing prospectus, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase Class A common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be offered independently or in combination with Class A common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The following description of warrants will apply to the warrants offered by this prospectus unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement for a particular series of warrants may specify different or additional terms.
We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, that contain the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of such warrants. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the warrants are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectus, and the complete form of warrant and/or the warrant agreement and warrant certificate, as applicable, and any supplemental agreements, that contain the terms of the warrants.
General
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants being offered, including:

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

in the case of warrants to purchase Class A common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of Class A common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations of holding or exercising the warrants;
 
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the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.
Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture; or

in the case of warrants to purchase Class A common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.
Exercise of Warrants
Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. The warrants may be exercised as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, warrants may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants offered thereby. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.
Upon receipt of payment and the warrant or warrant certificate, as applicable, properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent, if any, or any other office, including ours, indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If less than all of the warrants (or the warrants represented by such warrant certificate) are exercised, a new warrant or a new warrant certificate, as applicable, will be issued for the remaining warrants.
Governing Law
Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and any warrant agreements will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.
Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants
Each warrant agent, if any, will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.
 
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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES
We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee, depositary or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.
Book-Entry Holders
We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.
Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Securities issued in global form will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for securities issued in global form, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.
As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.
Street Name Holders
We may terminate a global security or issue securities in non-global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.
For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any applicable trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.
Legal Holders
Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee and of any third parties employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.
For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the legal holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that legal holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the legal holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the
 
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consequences of a default or of our obligation to comply with a particular provision of the indenture or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.
Special Considerations for Indirect Holders
If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

how it handles securities payments and notices;

whether it imposes fees or charges;

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.
Global Securities
A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.
Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, DTC will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.
A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.
If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued in global form only, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.
Special Considerations for Global Securities
The rights of an indirect holder relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.
If securities are issued only in the form of a global security, an investor should be aware of the following:

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;
 
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an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank, broker or other financial institution for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in a global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in a global security;

we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in a global security, nor do we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in a global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your bank, broker or other financial institution may require you to do so as well; and

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in a global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.
There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.
Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated
In a few special situations described below, the global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks, brokers or other financial institutions to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own name, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.
Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.
The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the applicable prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and not we or any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell our securities covered by this prospectus in any of three ways (or in any combination):

to or through underwriters or dealers;

directly to one or more purchasers; or

through agents.
We may distribute the securities:

from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

at prices related to the prevailing market prices; or

at negotiated prices.
Each time we offer and sell securities covered by this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement or supplements that will describe the method of distribution and set forth the terms of the offering, including:

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents;

the amounts of securities underwritten or purchased by each of them;

the purchase price of securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

any underwriting discounts or commissions or agency fees and other items constituting underwriters’ or agents’ compensation;

the public offering price of the securities;

any discounts, commissions or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.
Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time. We may determine the price or other terms of the securities offered under this prospectus by use of an electronic auction. We will describe how any auction will determine the price or any other terms, how potential investors may participate in the auction and the nature of the obligations of the underwriter, dealer or agent in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Underwriters or dealers may offer and sell the offered securities from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. If underwriters or dealers are used in the sale of any securities, the securities will be acquired by the underwriters or dealers for their own account and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions described above. The securities may be either offered to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters, or directly by underwriters or dealers. Generally, the underwriters’ or dealers’ obligations to purchase the securities will be subject to certain conditions precedent. The underwriters or dealers will be obligated to purchase all of the securities if they purchase any of the securities, unless otherwise specified in the prospectus supplement. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe the nature of any such relationship in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter.
We may sell the securities through agents from time to time. The prospectus supplement will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities and any commissions we pay to them. Generally, any agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment. We may authorize underwriters, dealers or agents to solicit offers by certain purchasers to purchase the securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment
 
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and delivery on a specified date in the future. The contracts will be subject only to those conditions set forth in the prospectus supplement, and the prospectus supplement will set forth any commissions we pay for solicitation of these contracts.
Agents, dealers and underwriters may be entitled to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribution with respect to payments which the agents, dealers or underwriters may be required to make in respect thereof. Agents, dealers and underwriters may be customers of, engage in transactions with, or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.
All securities we may offer, other than Class A common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.
The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act. Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. This short sales position may involve either “covered” short sales or “naked” short sales. Covered short sales are short sales made in an amount not greater than the underwriters’ over-allotment option to purchase additional securities in this offering described above. The underwriters may close out any covered short position either by exercising their over-allotment option or by purchasing securities in the open market. To determine how they will close the covered short position, the underwriters will consider, among other things, the price of securities available for purchase in the open market, as compared to the price at which they may purchase securities through the over-allotment option. Naked short sales are short sales in excess of the over-allotment option. The underwriters must close out any naked short position by purchasing securities in the open market. A naked short position is more likely to be created if the underwriters are concerned that, in the open market after pricing, there may be downward pressure on the price of the securities that could adversely affect investors who purchase securities in this offering. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security for the purpose of fixing the price of the security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a covering transaction to cover short positions.
Any underwriters who are qualified market makers on the Nasdaq Global Select Market may engage in passive market making transactions in our Class A common stock, preferred stock, warrants and debt securities, as applicable, on the Nasdaq Global Select Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded.
In compliance with guidelines of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, or FINRA, the maximum consideration or discount to be received by any FINRA member or independent broker dealer may not exceed 8% of the aggregate amount of the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement.
Similar to other purchase transactions, an underwriter’s purchase to cover the syndicate short sales or to stabilize the market price of our securities may have the effect of raising or maintaining the market price of our securities or preventing or mitigating a decline in the market price of our securities. As a result, the price of our securities may be higher than the price that might otherwise exist in the open market. The imposition of a penalty bid might also have an effect on the price of the securities if it discourages resales of the securities.
Neither we nor the underwriters make any representation or prediction as to the effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of the securities. If such transactions are commenced, they may be discontinued without notice at any time.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon for us by Cooley LLP. As of the date of this prospectus, GC&H Investments, LLC, an entity comprised of partners and associates of Cooley LLP, beneficially owns 65,080 shares of Class A common stock.
EXPERTS
The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of WithumSmith+Brown, PC, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. Neither we nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
 
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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents instead of having to repeat the information in this prospectus. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings (including those made after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to the effectiveness of such registration statement) we will make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act until the termination of the offering of the shares covered by this prospectus (other than information furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K):

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on March 29, 2023;

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 27, 2023;

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2023 filed with the SEC on May 10, 2023;

our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on June 15, 2023; and

the description of our Class A common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on June 10, 2019, including any amendments thereto or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description, including the description of our securities contained in Exhibit 4.5 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on March 29, 2023.
You can request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:
Atreca, Inc.
835 Industrial Road, Suite 400,
San Carlos, CA 94070
(650) 595-2595
Attn: General Counsel
 
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[MISSING IMAGE: lg_atreca-4c.jpg]
Class A Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
PROSPECTUS
                 , 2023

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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion, dated July 18, 2023.
Prospectus
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_atreca-4c.jpg]
$11,399,000
Class A Common Stock
We have entered into a Common Stock Sales Agreement dated July 18, 2023, or the sales agreement, with Cowen and Company, LLC, or TD Cowen, relating to the sale of shares of our Class A common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $11,399,000 from time to time, through TD Cowen, acting as our sales agent.
Our Class A common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “BCEL.” On July 17, 2023, the last reported sale price of our Class A common stock was $1.00 per share.
Sales of our shares, if any, under this prospectus may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. TD Cowen is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will act as a sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between TD Cowen and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
Under the sales agreement, we may also sell shares of Class A common stock to TD Cowen as principal for its own account, at a price to be agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares to a TD Cowen as principal, we will enter into a separate terms agreement with TD Cowen, and we will describe the agreement in a separate prospectus supplement or pricing supplement.
TD Cowen will be entitled to compensation under the terms of the sales agreement at a fixed commission rate of up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold under the sales agreement. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page 13 for additional information regarding TD Cowen’s compensation. In connection with the sale of common stock on our behalf, TD Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of TD Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification to TD Cowen against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. See section titled “Plan of Distribution” on page 13 of this prospectus.
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, please read the information contained in and incorporated by reference under the heading “Risk Factors” on page 4 of this prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that we have filed or that are filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
The aggregate market value of our outstanding Class A common stock held by non-affiliates, or public float, was approximately $34.2 million, based on 28,032,080 shares of outstanding Class A common stock held by non-affiliates, at a price of $1.22 per share, which was the closing price of our Class A common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on June 12, 2023. Pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, in no event will we sell securities registered on the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part in a public primary offering with a value exceeding more than one-third of our public float in any 12-month period so long as our public float remains below $75.0 million. As of the date hereof, we have not offered any securities pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 during the 12 calendar months prior to and including the date of this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
TD Cowen
The date of this prospectus is            , 2023.

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PROSPECTUS
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus relates to part of a “shelf” registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC.
Before buying any of the Class A common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus and all of the information in the documents that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus, as well as the additional information described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.” These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.
To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus, provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date — for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus — the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.
Neither we nor TD Cowen have authorized any other person to provide you with any information that is different than on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectus we may provide to you in connection with this offering. We and TD Cowen take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of our Class A common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus and the offering of shares of our Class A common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of shares of our Class A common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.
You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents, regardless of the time of delivery of the respective document or of any sale of securities covered by this prospectus supplement. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should not assume that the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement, or in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate as of any date other than the respective dates thereof. You should read this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, as well as any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.
Unless otherwise stated or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference herein or therein to “Atreca,” the “company,” “we,” “us” and “our” and other similar references refer to Atreca, Inc., a corporation under the laws of the State of Delaware.
This prospectus supplement, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein include trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement are the property of their respective owners.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our Class A common stock. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, and the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the information in the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus on page 4, our consolidated financial statements and related notes, and the other information that we incorporate by reference into this prospectus.
In this prospectus, unless we indicate otherwise or the context requires, references to the “company,” “Atreca,” “we,” “our,” “ours,” and “us” and other similar references refer to Atreca, Inc. The following summary is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed information and financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus.
Atreca, Inc.
Overview
We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company utilizing our differentiated platform primarily to discover and develop novel antibody-based therapeutics to treat a range of solid tumor types. While more traditional oncology drug discovery approaches attempt to generate antibodies against known targets, our approach relies on the human immune system to direct us to unique antibody-target pairs from patients experiencing a clinically meaningful, active immune response against their tumors. These unique antibody-target pairs represent a potentially novel and previously unexplored landscape of oncology targets. We believe the fact that our approach has the potential to deliver novel, previously unexplored oncology targets provides us with a significant competitive advantage over traditional approaches, which focus on known targets that many companies are aware of and can pursue. We have utilized our drug discovery approach to identify over 2,000 distinct human antibodies that bind preferentially to tumor tissue from patients who are not the source of the antibody.
Corporate Information
We were incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware in June 2010. Our principal executive offices are located at 835 Industrial Road Suite 400, San Carlos, CA 94070. Our telephone number is (650) 595-2595. Our website address is www.atreca.com. Information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider information on our website to be part of this prospectus.
The Atreca design logo, “Atreca” and our other common law or registered trademarks, service marks or trade names appearing in this prospectus are the property of Atreca, Inc. Other trademarks, service marks or trade names used in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners.
Risks Associated with our Business
Our business is subject to numerous risks, as described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectuses we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, and under similar headings in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and Smaller Reporting Company
We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, and therefore we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various public company reporting requirements, including not being required to have our internal control over financial reporting
 
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audited by our independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this prospectus, our periodic reports and our proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of $1.235 billion or more during such fiscal year, (ii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt in the prior three-year period, (iii) December 31, 2024, or (iv) the last day of the fiscal year in which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may still qualify as a “smaller reporting company,” which would allow us to take advantage of many of the same exemptions from disclosure requirements including reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this prospectus and our periodic reports and proxy statements.
We are also a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company even after we are no longer an emerging growth company. We may take advantage of certain of the scaled disclosures available to smaller reporting companies and will be able to take advantage of these scaled disclosures for so long as our Class A common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter, or our annual revenue is less than $100.0 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and our Class A common stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700.0 million measured on the last business day of our second fiscal quarter.
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The Offering
Class A common stock offered by us
Shares of our Class A common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $11,399,000.
Class A common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering
Assuming all $11,399,000 of shares of our Class A common stock are sold in this offering at an assuming offering price of $1.00 per share, the last reported sale price of shares of our Class A common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on July 17, 2023, we would have had 43,840,143 shares of our Class A common stock outstanding as of July 17, 2023.
Manner of offering
“At-the-market” offering that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, TD Cowen. See “Plan of Distribution” on page 13 of this prospectus.
Use of proceeds
We currently expect to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital and other general corporate purposes, which may include funding research and development, general and administrative activities and capital expenditures. See “Use of Proceeds” on page 8 of this prospectus.
Risk factors
Investing in our Class A common stock involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 4 of this prospectus, and under similar headings in documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, for a discussion of factors you should consider before buying shares of our Class A common stock.
Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol . .
“BCEL”
The number of shares of our Class A common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on 32,441,143 shares of our Class A common stock and 6,715,441 shares of our Class B common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2023 and excludes:

8,988,801 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options as of March 31, 2023 with a weighted average exercise price of $2.91 per share;

753,464 shares of Class A common stock issuable upon the vesting of outstanding restricted stock units as of March 31, 2023;

2,603,139 shares of Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan and Inducement Plan as of March 31, 2023, as well as (i) any additional shares of Class A common stock that become available for issuance under the 2019 Equity Incentive Plan (including as a result of annual increases) and (ii) any shares of Class A common stock that would have otherwise returned to our 2010 Equity Incentive Plan in accordance with its terms, which, in each case, will become available for issuance under our 2019 Equity Incentive Plan; and

1,203,443 shares of our Class A common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2019 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as of March 31, 2023, as well as any additional shares of Class A common stock that become available for issuance under this plan (including as a result of annual increases).
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our Class A common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our Class A common stock, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below and under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in any related free writing prospectus, and discussed under the section titled “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our most recent Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, as well as any amendments thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. The risks described in these documents are not the only ones we face, but those that we consider to be material. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our Class A common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also read carefully the section below titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Risks Related to this Offering and Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock
If you purchase shares of our Class A common stock in this offering, you may suffer immediate dilution of your investment.
If you invest in our Class A common stock, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent the price per share you pay in this offering is higher than the net tangible book value per share of our Class A common stock immediately after this offering. Our net tangible book value of our Class A common stock as of March 31, 2023 was approximately $61 million, or $1.56 per share. Net tangible book value of our Class A common stock is total tangible assets less our total liabilities divided by the number of shares of our Class A common stock outstanding as of March 31, 2023. On July 17, 2023, the last reported sale price of our Class A common stock was $1.00 per share. Because the sales of the shares offered hereby will be made directly into the market, the prices at which we sell these shares will vary and these variations may be significant. The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our Class A common stock outstanding prior to this offering, in which case investors will incur immediate and substantial dilution. Purchasers of the shares we sell, as well as our existing stockholders, will experience significant dilution if we sell shares at prices significantly below the price at which they invested.
We will have broad discretion in the use of proceeds from this offering and may invest or spend the proceeds in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may not yield a return.
We will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering. You may not agree with our decisions, and our use of the proceeds may not yield any return on your investment in us. Our failure to apply the net proceeds of this offering effectively could result in financial losses that could materially impair our ability to pursue our growth strategy, cause the price of our Class A common stock to decline, delay development of our products or require us to raise additional capital.
You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.
In order to raise additional capital, we may offer additional shares of our Class A common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our Class A common stock in the future. We cannot assure you that we will be able to sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is equal to or greater than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our Class A common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our Class A common stock in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share in this offering.
We do not intend to pay dividends on our Class A common stock so any returns will be limited to the value of our stock.
We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any return to stockholders will therefore be limited to the appreciation of their stock.
 
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The Class A common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings,” and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.
Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand and the terms of the sales agreement, to vary the timing, prices and numbers of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price for shares to be sold in this offering. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.
 
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and the documents that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, that are incorporated by reference in this prospectus contain forward-looking statements about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our future results of operations or financial condition, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “will” or “would” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:

the initiation, timing, progress and results of our research and development programs, preclinical studies, any clinical trials and investigational new drug, or IND, and other regulatory submissions;

our expectations regarding the activity of ATRC-101 or potential future product candidates once administered in a human subject;

our expectations and beliefs regarding the market for cancer therapies and development of the immuno-oncology industry;

our ability to identify and develop product candidates for treatment of additional disease indications;

our or a potential future collaborator’s ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of any of our current or potential future product candidates;

the rate and degree of market acceptance of any approved product candidates;

the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business, technologies, and current or potential future product candidates;

our financial condition;

our or any potential future collaborator’s ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our discovery platform and current or potential future product candidates and our ability to operate our business without infringing the intellectual property rights of others;

anticipated synergies resulting from our collaborations;

the effect of macroeconomic conditions, including but not limited to the COVID-19 pandemic, inflation, uncertain credit and global financial markets and geopolitical events;

the level of dilution our stockholders will face in connection with sales of the shares offered pursuant to this prospectus; and

our use of the net proceeds from this offering.
You should not rely on forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and operating results. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors described in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus. The results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement, together with the documents we have filed with the SEC that are incorporated by reference and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with a specific offering completely and with the understanding that our actual future
 
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results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of the forward-looking statements in the foregoing documents by these cautionary statements.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this prospectus. While we believe that information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, that information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.
The forward-looking statements made in this prospectus relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward- looking statements made in this prospectus to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this prospectus or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments. We qualify all of our forward- looking statements by these cautionary statements.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital and general corporate purposes, which may include, among other things, funding research and development activities.
The expected use of the net proceeds from this offering represents our intentions based upon our current plans and business conditions, which could change in the future as our plans and business conditions evolve. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures depend on numerous factors, including the progress of our preclinical development efforts, the ongoing status of and results of our clinical trials and other studies and any unforeseen cash needs. As a result, our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds, and investors will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the net proceeds of this offering. Although we may use a portion of the net proceeds from the offering for the acquisition or licensing, as the case may be, of product candidates, technologies, compounds, other assets or complementary businesses, we have no current understandings, agreements or commitments to do so. Pending these uses, we intend to invest the net proceeds from this offering in interest-bearing, investment-grade securities.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
General
The following description summarizes the most important terms of our capital stock. Because it is only a summary, it does not contain all the information that may be important to you. For a complete description of the matters set forth in this “Description of Capital Stock,” you should refer to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, which are included as exhibits to our Annual Report on Form 10-K, and to the applicable provisions of Delaware law.
Our authorized capital stock consists of 650,000,000 shares of Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, 50,000,000 shares of Class B common stock, $0.0001 par value per share and 300,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share.
Class A Common Stock
As of March 31, 2023, 32,441,143 shares of Class A common stock were outstanding. All outstanding shares of Class A common stock are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid, and nonassessable. All authorized but unissued shares of our Class A common stock are available for issuance by our board of directors without any further stockholder action, except as required by the listing standards of the Nasdaq Stock Market.
Voting Rights
Except as otherwise expressly provided in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or as required by applicable law, on any matter that is submitted to a vote by our stockholders, holders of our Class A common stock are entitled to one vote per share of Class A common stock, including for the election of directors. We have not provided for cumulative voting rights for our Class A common stock in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation.
Conversion Rights
Holders of our Class A common stock have no conversion rights.
Economic Rights
Dividends and Distributions.   Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock are entitled to receive ratably those dividends, if any, as may be declared by the board of directors out of legally available funds.
Liquidation Rights.   In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of or provision for all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the prior rights of any preferred stock then outstanding.
Holders of our Class A common stock have no preemptive rights or other subscription rights and there are no redemption or sinking funds provisions applicable to our Class A common stock. The rights, preferences, and privileges of holders of Class A common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.
Class B Common Stock
As of March 31, 2023, 6,715,441 shares of Class B common stock were outstanding. All outstanding shares of Class B common stock are duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid, and nonassessable.
Voting Rights
Except as otherwise expressly provided in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or as required by applicable law, on any matter that is submitted to a vote by our stockholders, holders of our
 
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Class B common stock are not entitled to any votes per share of Class B common stock, including for the election of directors. We have not provided for cumulative voting rights for our Class B common stock in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation.
Conversion Rights
Holders of our Class B common stock shall have the right to convert each share of our Class B common stock into one share of Class A common stock at such holder’s election, provided that as a result of such conversion, such holder would not beneficially own in excess of 4.99% of any class of our securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, unless otherwise as expressly provided for in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. However, this ownership limitation may be increased or decreased to any other percentage designated by such holder of Class B common stock upon 61 days’ notice to us.
Economic Rights
Dividends and Distributions.   Subject to preferences that may be applicable to any then outstanding preferred stock, holders of our Class B common stock and Class A common stock are entitled to receive ratably those dividends, if any, as may be declared by the board of directors out of legally available funds.
Liquidation Rights.   In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of our Class B common stock and Class A common stock will be entitled to share ratably in the assets legally available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of or provision for all of our debts and other liabilities, subject to the prior rights of any preferred stock then outstanding.
Holders of our Class B common stock have no preemptive rights or other subscription rights and there are no redemption or sinking funds provisions applicable to our Class B common stock. The rights, preferences, and privileges of holders of Class B common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.
Preferred Stock
Under the terms of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 300,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each such series, to fix the dividend, voting and other rights, preferences and privileges of the shares of each wholly unissued series and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereon, and to increase or decrease the number of shares of any such series, but not below the number of shares of such series then outstanding.
Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in our control and may adversely affect the market price of the Class A common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock. We have no current plans to issue any shares of preferred stock.
Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of Delaware Law and Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws
Some provisions of Delaware law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that could make the following transactions more difficult: an acquisition of us by means of a tender offer; an acquisition of us by means of a proxy contest or otherwise; or the removal of our incumbent officers and directors. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish or could deter transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interest or in our best interests, including transactions which provide for payment of a premium over the market price for our shares.
 
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These provisions, summarized below, are intended to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of the increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure us outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging these proposals because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law
We are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:

before such date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding (but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder) those shares owned (1) by persons who are directors and also officers and (2) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; and

on or after such date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 /3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder
In general, Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law defines “business combination” to include the following:

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; and

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.
In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as an entity or person who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status owned, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation.
The statute could prohibit or delay mergers or other takeover or change in control attempts and, accordingly, may discourage attempts to acquire us even though such a transaction may offer our stockholders the opportunity to sell their stock at a price above the prevailing market price.
Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Amended and Restated Bylaws
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides for our board of directors to be divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors is elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective
 
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three year terms. Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of Class A common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they so choose, other than any directors that holders of any preferred stock we may issue may be entitled to elect. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation also provide that directors may be removed by the stockholders only for cause upon the affirmative vote of sixty-six and two-thirds percent (66 /3%) of the voting power of all then-outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote generally at an election of the directors.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide that no action shall be taken by our stockholders except at an annual or special meeting of stockholders called in accordance with our amended and restated bylaws, and no action of our stockholders shall be taken by written consent or electronic transmission. Our amended and restated bylaws also provides that a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by our chairperson of the board, chief executive officer or president, or by a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors.
Our amended and restated bylaws also establishes advance notice procedures with respect to stockholder proposals to be brought before a stockholder meeting and the nomination of candidates for election as directors, other than nominations made by or at the direction of the board of directors or a committee of the board of directors.
The amendment of any of the above provisions, except for the provision making it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock, would require approval by holders of at least two-thirds of the total voting power of all of our outstanding voting stock.
The provisions of Delaware law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws could have the effect of discouraging others from attempting hostile takeovers and, as a consequence, they may also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our Class A common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions may also have the effect of preventing changes in the composition of our board and management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders may otherwise deem to be in their best interests.
Choice of Forum
Our certificate of amended and restated incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law: (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or our directors, officers, or employees arising under the Delaware General Corporation Law, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws; and (iv) any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The provisions would not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation further provides that the federal district courts of the United States of America will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act, subject to and contingent upon a final adjudication in the State of Delaware of the enforceability of such exclusive forum provision.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our Class A common stock and Class B common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent’s address is 250 Royall Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021-1011.
Listing on the Nasdaq Global Select Market
Our Class A common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “BCEL.”
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We have entered into a sales agreement with TD Cowen, dated July 18, 2023, under which we may issue and sell up to $91,521,058 of our shares of Class A common stock from time to time through or to TD Cowen as our sales agent or principal. Sales of our shares of Class A common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement will be made by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. If authorized by us in writing, TD Cowen may purchase shares of our common stock as principal.
TD Cowen will offer our Class A common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and TD Cowen. We will designate the maximum amount of Class A common stock to be sold through TD Cowen on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum amount together with TD Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, TD Cowen will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of Class A common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct TD Cowen not to sell Class A common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. TD Cowen or we may suspend the offering of our Class A common stock being made through TD Cowen under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party. TD Cowen and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the sales agreement, to terminate the sales agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time.
The aggregate compensation payable to TD Cowen as sales agent equals up to 3.0% of the gross sales price of the shares sold through it pursuant to the sales agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse TD Cowen up to $75,000 of TD Cowen’s actual outside legal expenses incurred by TD Cowen in connection with this offering and up to $15,000 of TD Cowen’s actual filing fees and associated legal expenses of TD Cowen’s outside counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions payable to TD Cowen under the sales agreement, will be approximately $330,000.
The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory, or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such Class A common stock.
TD Cowen will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on each day in which Class A common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume weighted average price of the shares sold and the net proceeds to us.
We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of Class A common stock sold through TD Cowen under the sales agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to TD Cowen in connection with the sales of Class A common stock.
Settlement for sales of Class A common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
Under the sales agreement, we may also sell shares of Class A common stock to TD Cowen as principal for its own account, at a price to be agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares to a TD Cowen as principal, we will enter into separate terms agreement with TD Cowen, and we will describe the agreement in a separate prospectus supplement or pricing supplement.
In connection with the sales of our Class A common stock on our behalf, TD Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to TD Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the sales agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to TD Cowen against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. As sales agent, TD Cowen will not engage in any transactions that stabilizes our common stock.
 
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Our Class A common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market and trades under the symbol “BCEL.” The transfer agent of our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
TD Cowen and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us for which services they have received and, may in the future receive, customary fees.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
Cooley LLP will pass upon the validity of the shares of Class A common stock offered hereby. Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP is acting as counsel for TD Cowen in connection with this offering.
EXPERTS
The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of WithumSmith+Brown, PC, an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
This prospectus is part of the registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and does not contain all the information set forth in the registration statement. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document. Because we are subject to the information and reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents instead of having to repeat the information in this prospectus. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus, and later information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below and any future filings we will make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, or 15(d) of the Exchange Act until the termination of the offering of the shares covered by this prospectus (other than information furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 or related exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K):

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on March 29, 2023;

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 27, 2023;

our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2023 filed with the SEC on May 10, 2023;

our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on June 15, 2023; and

the description of our Class A common stock set forth in our registration statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on June 10, 2019, including any amendments thereto or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description, including the description of our securities contained in Exhibit 4.5 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on March 29, 2023.
We also incorporate by reference any future filings (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items unless such Form 8-K expressly provides to the contrary) made with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including those made after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of such registration statement, until we file a post-effective amendment that indicates the termination of the offering of the securities made by this prospectus, which will become a part of this prospectus from the date that such documents are filed with
 
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the SEC. Information in such future filings updates and supplements the information provided in this prospectus. Any statements in any such future filings will automatically be deemed to modify and supersede any information in any document we previously filed with the SEC that is incorporated or deemed to be incorporated herein by reference to the extent that statements in the later-filed document modify or replace such earlier statements. We will furnish without charge to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits that are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents to:
Atreca, Inc.
835 Industrial Road,
Suite 400, San Carlos, CA 94070
(650) 595-2595
Attn: General Counsel
 
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$11,399,000
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_atreca-4c.jpg]
Class A Common Stock
Prospectus
TD Cowen
       , 2023

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PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS
Item 14.
Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.
The following table sets forth the estimated costs and expenses, other than the underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by us, in connection with the offering of the securities pursuant to this Registration Statement:
Amount
SEC Registration Fee
$ 33,060
Financial Industry Regulatory Authority filing fee
(1)
Legal Fees and Expenses
(1)
Nasdaq Global Select Market Listing Fees
(1)
Accounting Fees
(1)
Printing and Miscellaneous Fees
(1)
Total .
(1)
(1)
The amount of securities and number of offerings are indeterminable and the expenses cannot be estimated at this time. An estimate of the aggregate expenses in connection with the sale and distribution of securities being offered will be included in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Item 15.
Indemnification of Directors and Officers.
Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law authorizes a court to award, or a corporation’s board of directors to grant, indemnity to directors and officers in terms sufficiently broad to permit such indemnification under certain circumstances for liabilities, including reimbursement for expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act. Our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to indemnify our directors, officers, employees and other agents to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. Our bylaws provide that we are required to indemnify our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law and may indemnify our other employees and agents. Our bylaws also provides that, on satisfaction of certain conditions, we will advance expenses incurred by a director or officer in advance of the final disposition of any action or proceeding, and permit us to secure insurance on behalf of any officer, director, employee or other agent for any liability arising out of his or her actions in that capacity regardless of whether we would otherwise be permitted to indemnify him or her under the provisions of Delaware law.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and officers whereby we have agreed to indemnify our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by law, including indemnification against expenses and liabilities incurred in legal proceedings to which the director or officer was, or is threatened to be made, a party by reason of the fact that such director or officer is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of Atreca, provided that such director or officer acted in good faith and in a manner that the director or officer reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interest of Atreca. At present, there is no pending litigation or proceeding involving a director or officer of Atreca regarding which indemnification is sought, nor is the registrant aware of any threatened litigation that may result in claims for indemnification.
We maintain insurance policies that indemnify our directors and officers against various liabilities arising under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, that might be incurred by any director or officer in his capacity as such.
The underwriting agreement(s) that the Registrant may enter into may provide for indemnification by any underwriters of the Registrant, its directors, its officers who sign the registration statement and the Registrant’s controlling persons for some liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted for directors, executive officers or persons controlling us, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
 
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Item 16.
Exhibits.
Incorporation by Reference
Exhibit
Number
Description
Form
File No.
Exhibit
Filing
Date
1.1* Form of Underwriting Agreement.
1.2 Sales Agreement, by and between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, dated July 18, 2023.
3.1
8-K
001-38935
3.1
6/26/2019
3.2
8-K
001-38935
3.2
6/26/2019
4.1
8-K
001-38935
4.1
6/26/2019
4.2
8-K
001-38935
4.2
6/26/2019
4.3
S-1
333-231770
4.2
5/24/2019
4.4
S-1
333-231770
4.3
5/24/2019
4.5* Form of Preferred Stock Certificate and Form of Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock.
4.6
4.7* Form of Debt Securities.
4.8
4.9
4.10
5.1
23.1
23.2
24.1 Power of Attorney (reference is made to the signature page hereto).
25.1**
Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Indenture.
107
*
To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a Current Report on Form 8-K and incorporated herein by reference, if applicable.
**
To be filed separately under electronic form type 305B2, if applicable.
Item 17.
Undertakings.
The undersigned registrants hereby undertakes:
(a)   To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
 
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(i)   to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii)   to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and
(iii)   to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that the undertakings set forth in paragraphs (i), (ii) and (iii) of this section do not apply if the registration statement is on Form S-3, Form SF-3 or Form F-3 and the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
(b)   That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(c)   To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(d)   That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:
(i)   Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(ii)   Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5) or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(e)   That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement,
 
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regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i)   Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii)   Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii)   The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(iv)   Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(f)   That for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(g)   That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, (i) the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(l) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be a part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and (ii) each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(h)    Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is therefore unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
(i)    To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.
 
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of San Carlos, State of California, on this 18th day of July, 2023.
ATRECA, INC.
By:
/s/ John A. Orwin
John A. Orwin
President and Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints John A. Orwin, Herbert Cross and Courtney Phillips, and each of them, as his or her true and lawful agent, proxy and attorney-in-fact, each acting alone, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to (i) act on, sign, and file with the SEC any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement together with all schedules and exhibits thereto, (ii) act on, sign and file such certificates, instruments, agreements and other documents as may be necessary or appropriate in connection therewith, (iii) act on and file any supplement to any prospectus included in this registration statement or any such amendment or any subsequent registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, and (iv) take any and all actions which may be necessary or appropriate to be done, as fully for all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby approving, ratifying and confirming all that such agent, proxy and attorney-in-fact or any of his substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue thereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated:
Signature
Title
Date
/s/ John A. Orwin
John A. Orwin
Director, President and Chief Executive Officer
(Principal Executive Officer)
July 18, 2023
/s/ Herbert Cross
Herbert Cross
Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
July 18, 2023
/s/ Brian Atwood
Brian Atwood
Chairman of the Board of Directors
July 18, 2023
/s/ Kristine M. Ball
Kristine M. Ball
Director
July 18, 2023
/s/ Franklin Berger
Franklin Berger
Director
July 18, 2023
 
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Signature
Title
Date
/s/ David Lacey
David Lacey
Director
July 18, 2023
/s/ William H. Robinson
William H. Robinson, M.D., Ph. D.
Director
July 18, 2023
/s/ Stacey Ma
Stacey Ma, Ph.D.
Director
July 18, 2023
/s/ Stephen Brady
Stephen Brady
Director
July 18, 2023
/s/ Lindsey Rolfe
Lindsey Rolfe, BSc, MB ChB, MRCP, FFPM
Director
July 18, 2023
/s/ Tito A. Serafini
Tito A. Serafini, Ph.D.
Director and Chief Strategy Officer
July 18, 2023
 
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Exhibit 1.2

 

Atreca, inc.

$91,521,058

 

class a common stock

 

SALES AGREEMENT

 

July 18, 2023

 

Cowen and Company, LLC

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10022

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Atreca, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), as follows:

 

1.            Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein and any Terms Agreement (as defined below), it may issue and sell to or through Cowen, acting as agent and/or principal, shares (the “Shares”) of the Company’s Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $91,521,058; provided, however, that in no event shall the Company issue or sell through Cowen such number or dollar amount of Shares that would (a) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock registered on the effective Registration Statement (defined below) pursuant to which the offering is being made, (b) exceed the number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock (less shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company's authorized capital stock), (c) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock permitted to be sold under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6 thereof, if applicable) or (d) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock for which the Company has filed a Prospectus Supplement (defined below) (the lesser of (a), (b), (c) and (d), the “Maximum Amount.” Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock issued and sold under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and Cowen shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Common Stock through Cowen will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) filed, or to be filed, by the Company and after such Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement (as defined below) to issue the Common Stock.

 

 

 

 

The Company shall file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”). The Company has prepared a prospectus supplement specifically relating to the Shares (the “ATM Prospectus”) to the base prospectus included as part of such registration statement, and shall, if necessary, prepare a prospectus supplement specifically relating to the Shares (the “Prospectus Supplement”) to the base prospectus included as part of such registration statement. Following the date the registration statement becomes effective, the Company shall furnish to Cowen, for use by Cowen, copies of the prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, if any, relating to the Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, and any post-effective amendment thereto, as amended when it becomes effective, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or 462(b) of the Securities Act, or any subsequent registration statement on Form S-3 filed pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act by the Company to cover any Shares, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The base prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by the ATM Prospectus and the Prospectus Supplement, if any, in the form in which such prospectus, ATM Prospectus and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 of the Securities Act regulations (“Rule 433”), relating to the Shares that (i) is consented to by Cowen (including any free writing prospectus prepared by the Company solely for use in connection with the offering contemplated by a particular Terms Agreement), hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus,” (ii) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (iii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission pursuant to the Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System (“EDGAR”). The Company’s obligations under this Agreement to furnish, provide, deliver or make available (and all other references of like import) copies of any document shall be deemed satisfied if the same is filed with the Commission through EDGAR.

 

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2.            Agency and Principal Transactions. (a) Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell the Shares hereunder through Cowen, acting as agent (each, an “Agency Transaction”), it will notify Cowen by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires the Shares to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number of Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number or dollar amount of Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from Cowen set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by Cowen unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, Cowen declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the Shares have been sold, (iii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice, (iv) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding those on the earlier dated Placement Notice, or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Cowen in connection with the sale of the Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor Cowen will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to an Agency Transaction or any Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to Cowen and Cowen does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

 

(b)          The Company may also offer to sell the Shares directly to Cowen, as principal, in which event such parties shall enter into a separate agreement (each, a “Terms Agreement”) in substantially the form of Exhibit 2(b) hereto (with such changes thereto as may be agreed upon by the Company and Cowen), relating to such sale in accordance with Section 3(b) hereof (each such transaction being referred to as a “Principal Transaction”).

 

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3.            Sale of Shares by Cowen. (a) Subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Company’s delivery of a Placement Notice with respect to an Agency Transaction, and unless the sale of the Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, Cowen, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of The Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc. (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. Cowen will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Shares sold on such day, the volume-weighted average price of the Shares sold, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. In the event the Company engages Cowen for a sale of Shares in an Agency Transaction that would constitute a “block” within the meaning of Rule 10b-18(a)(5) under the Exchange Act (a “Block Sale”), the Company will provide Cowen, at Cowen’s request and upon reasonable advance notice to the Company, on or prior to the Settlement Date (as defined below), the opinions of counsel, accountant’s letter and officers’ certificates set forth in Section 8 hereof, each dated the Settlement Date, and such other documents and information as Cowen shall reasonably request. Cowen may sell Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that Cowen will be successful in selling Shares, and (ii) Cowen will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Shares for any reason other than a failure by Cowen to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Shares as required under this Section 3. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Company’s Common Stock is purchased and sold on the principal market on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted.

 

(b)           (i)  If the Company wishes to issue and sell the Shares to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement in a Principal Transaction, it will notify Cowen of the proposed terms of the Principal Transaction. If Cowen, acting as principal, wishes to accept such proposed terms (which it may decline to do for any reason in its sole discretion) or, following discussions with the Company, wishes to accept amended terms, the Company and Cowen shall enter into a Terms Agreement setting forth the terms of such Principal Transaction.

 

(ii)  The terms set forth in a Terms Agreement shall not be binding on the Company or Cowen unless and until the Company and Cowen have each executed and delivered such Terms Agreement accepting all of the terms of such Terms Agreement. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Terms Agreement, the terms of such Terms Agreement shall control.

 

(iii) Each sale of the Shares to Cowen in a Principal Transaction shall be made in accordance with the terms of this Agreement and a Terms Agreement, which shall provide for the sale of such Shares to, and the purchase thereof by, Cowen. A Terms Agreement may also specify certain provisions relating to the reoffering of such Shares by Cowen. The commitment of Cowen to purchase the Shares pursuant to any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to have been made on the basis of the representations, warranties and agreements of the Company contained, and shall be subject to the terms and conditions set forth, in this Agreement and such Terms Agreement. Any such Terms Agreement shall specify the number of the Shares to be purchased by Cowen pursuant thereto, the price to be paid to the Company for such Shares, any provisions relating to rights of, and default by, Cowen in the reoffering of the Shares, and the time, date (each such time and date being referred to herein as a “Principal Settlement Date”) and place of delivery of and payment for such Shares.

 

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(c)           Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, the Company shall not offer, sell or deliver, or request the offer or sale, of any Shares pursuant to this Agreement (whether in an Agency Transaction or a Principal Transaction) and, by notice to Cowen given by telephone (confirmed promptly by email), shall cancel any instructions for the offer or sale of any Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to offer or sell any Shares, (i) during any period in which the Company is, or could be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information, or (ii) at any time from and including the date on which the Company shall issue a press release containing, or shall otherwise publicly announce, its earnings, revenues or other results of operations (an “Earnings Announcement”) through and including the time that the Company files a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K that includes consolidated financial statements as of and for the same period or periods, as the case may be, covered by such Earnings Announcement.

 

4.            Suspension of Sales.

 

(a)           The Company or Cowen may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. While a suspension is in effect, any obligation under Sections 7(m), 7(n) and 7(o) with respect to delivery of certificates, opinion, or comfort letters to Cowen, shall be waived. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto, as such schedule may be amended from time to time.

 

(b)           If either Cowen or the Company has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied with respect to the Common Stock, it shall promptly notify the other party, and Cowen or the Company may, at its sole discretion, suspend sales of the Shares under this Agreement.

 

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(c)           Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Registration Statement is no longer effective under the Securities Act, the Company shall promptly notify Cowen, the Company shall not request the sale of any Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Shares.

 

5.            Settlement.

 

(a)           Settlement of Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Shares in an Agency Transaction will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, an “Agency Settlement Date” and the first such Agency Settlement Date, the “First Delivery Date”; and any Agency Settlement Date and Principal Settlement Date shall be referred to as a “Settlement Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by Cowen at which such Shares were sold, after deduction for (i) Cowen’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof or pursuant to any applicable Terms Agreement, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to Cowen hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) (Expenses) hereof, and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

 

(b)           Delivery of Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Shares being sold by crediting Cowen’s or its designee’s account (provided Cowen shall have given the Company written notice of such designee prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, Cowen will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized Shares on a Settlement Date (except if such default was caused by Cowen), the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) (Indemnification and Contribution) hereto, it will (i) hold Cowen harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company and (ii) pay to Cowen (without duplication) any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

 

6.            Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, Cowen that, unless such representation or warranty specifies a different time, as of (i) the date of this Agreement, (ii) each date on which the Company executes and delivers a Terms Agreement, (iii) each Time of Sale (defined below), (iv) each Settlement Date, and (v) each Bring-Down Date (as defined below) (each such date included in (i) through (v) above, a “Representation Date”):

 

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(a)           Compliance with Registration Requirements. The Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement have been declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act. The Company has complied to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information in connection therewith. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, contemplated or threatened by the Commission. The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act. The sale of the Shares hereunder meets the requirements of Form S-3, including, but not limited to, General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3, if applicable. Compliance with any limitation set forth by General Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3 is the sole responsibility of the Company and Cowen shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance.

 

(b)           No Misstatement or Omission. The Prospectus when filed complied and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act. Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any post-effective amendments or supplements thereto, at the time it became effective or its date, as applicable, complied and as of each Representation Date complied and will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and did not and, as of each Representation Date did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date, did not and, as of each Representation Date, will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The representations and warranties set forth in the two immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to Agent’s Information (as defined below). There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required. As used herein, “Time of Sale” means (i) with respect to each offering of Shares pursuant to this Agreement, the time of Cowen’s initial entry into contracts with purchasers for the sale of such Shares and (ii) with respect to each offering of Shares pursuant to any relevant Terms Agreement, the time of sale of such Shares to Cowen. “Agent’s Information” means, solely the following information in the Prospectus: the fifth paragraph and the last sentence of the eighth paragraph under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus.

 

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(c)           Offering Materials Furnished to Cowen. The Company has delivered to Cowen one complete copy of the Registration Statement and a copy of each consent and certificate of experts filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits) and the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and at such places as Cowen has reasonably requested. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (to the extent any such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus was required to be filed with the Commission) delivered to Cowen for use in connection with the public offering of the Shares contemplated herein or by any Terms Agreement have been and will be identical to the versions of such documents transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.

 

(d)           Emerging Growth Company. As of the date of this Agreement, the Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company ceasing to be an emerging growth company.

 

(e)           Not an Ineligible Issuer. The Company currently is not an “ineligible issuer,” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company becoming an “ineligible issuer.”

 

(f)           Distribution of Offering Material By the Company. The Company has not distributed and will not distribute, prior to the completion of Cowen’s distribution of the Shares, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares other than the Prospectus or the Registration Statement.

 

(g)           The Sales Agreement; Terms Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by, and is a valid and binding agreement of, the Company, enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as rights to indemnification hereunder may be limited by applicable law and except as the enforcement hereof may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors or by general equitable principles. Any Terms Agreement will have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and, assuming due authorization, execution and delivery by the other parties thereto, will be a legal, valid and binding agreement of the Company enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, and by general equitable principles.

 

(h)           Authorization of the Common Stock. The Shares, when issued and delivered, will be duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, will conform to the descriptions thereof in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, free and clear of any pledge, lien, encumbrance, security interest or other claim, and the issuance and sale of the Shares by the Company is not subject to preemptive or other similar rights arising by operation of law, under the organizational documents of the Company or under any agreement to which the Company or any Subsidiary (as defined below) is a party or otherwise.

 

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(i)           Ownership of Subsidiaries. All of the outstanding shares of capital stock (if any) of each subsidiary (if any) of the Company (each a “Subsidiary”) are, except to the extent set forth in the Prospectus, owned by the Company directly or indirectly through one or more wholly-owned Subsidiaries, free and clear of any claim, lien, encumbrance, security interest, restriction upon voting or transfer or any other claim of any third party.

 

(j)           No Applicable Registration or Other Similar Rights. There are no persons with registration or other similar rights to have any equity or debt securities registered for sale under the Registration Statement or included in the offering contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, except for such rights as have been duly waived.

 

(k)            No Material Adverse Change. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has sustained, since the date of the latest audited financial statements included in the Prospectus, (i) any material loss or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor dispute or action, order or decree of any court or governmental or regulatory authority, otherwise than as set forth or contemplated in the Prospectus; (ii) any material change in the capital stock (other than the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of stock options and warrants described as outstanding under, and the grant of options and awards under, existing equity incentive plans described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus) or long-term debt of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, or any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, set aside for payment, paid or made by the Company on any class of capital stock; or (iii) any material adverse changes, or any development involving a prospective material adverse change, in or affecting the business, properties, assets, general affairs, management, financial position, prospects, stockholders’ equity or results of operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole, otherwise than as set forth or contemplated in the Prospectus (any such change, a “Material Adverse Change”).

 

(l)            Independent Accountants. OUM & Co. LLP, who has expressed its opinion with respect to the financial statements (which term as used in this Agreement includes the related notes thereto) and supporting schedules filed with the Commission or incorporated by reference as a part of the Registration Statement and included in the Prospectus, is an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act.

 

(m)          Preparation of the Financial Statements. The financial statements, together with the related notes, filed with the Commission as a part of or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus present fairly the consolidated financial position of the Company and its Subsidiaries as of and at the dates indicated and the results of their operations and cash flows for the periods specified. Such financial statements and related notes have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles as applied in the United States applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved, except as may be expressly set forth in the related notes thereto and provided that unaudited interim financial statements, which are subject to normal year-end adjustments, may not contain certain footnotes, as permitted by the rules of the Commission. The financial statements, together with the related notes, incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus comply in all material respects with Regulation S-X. No other financial statements or supporting schedules or exhibits are required by Regulation S-X to be included in or incorporated in the Registration Statement. The summary and selected financial data included or incorporated in the Prospectus fairly present in all material respects the information shown therein at the respective dates and for the respective periods specified and are derived from the consolidated financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement.

 

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(n)           XBRL. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

 

(o)          Organization and Good Standing of the Company and its Subsidiaries. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries have been duly organized and are validly existing as corporations or other legal entities in good standing (or the foreign equivalent thereof) under the laws of their respective jurisdictions of organization. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries are duly qualified to do business and are in good standing as foreign corporations or other legal entities in each jurisdiction in which their respective ownership or lease of property or the conduct of their respective businesses requires such qualification and have all power and authority (corporate or other) necessary to own or hold their respective properties and to conduct the businesses in which they are engaged, except where the failure to so qualify or have such power or authority would not (i) reasonably be likely to have a material adverse effect on the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole, or (ii) impair in any material respect the ability of the Company to issue and sell the Shares under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement (any such effect as described in clauses (i) or (ii), a “Material Adverse Effect”). The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than the Subsidiaries listed in Exhibit 21.1 to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the most recently ended fiscal year.

 

(p)          Capital Stock Matters. The Common Stock conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Prospectus. All of the issued and outstanding shares of Common Stock have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and have been issued in compliance with federal and state securities laws. None of the outstanding shares of Common Stock were issued in violation of any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities of the Company. There are no authorized or outstanding options, warrants, preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other rights to purchase, or equity or debt securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for, any capital stock of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries other than those accurately described in all material respects in the Prospectus. The description of the Company’s stock option, stock bonus and other stock plans or arrangements, and the options or other rights granted thereunder, set forth in the Prospectus accurately and fairly presents in all material respects the information required to be shown with respect to such plans, arrangements, options and rights.

 

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(q)           Non-Contravention of Existing Instruments; No Further Authorizations or Approvals Required. The execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and any Terms Agreement by the Company, the issuance and sale of the Shares by the Company and the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby will not (with or without notice or lapse of time or both) (i) conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, constitute a default or a Debt Repayment Triggering Event (as defined below) under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, encumbrance, security interest, claim or charge upon any property or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary pursuant to, any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is subject, (ii) result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws (or analogous governing instruments, as applicable) of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or (iii) result in the violation of any law, statute, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree of any court or governmental or regulatory agency or body, domestic or foreign, having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or any of their properties or assets except, in the case of clauses (i) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation or default that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. A “Debt Repayment Triggering Event” means any event or condition that gives, or with the giving of notice or lapse of time would give the holder of any note, debenture or other evidence of indebtedness (or any person acting on such holder’s behalf) the right to require the repurchase, redemption or repayment of all or a portion of such indebtedness by the Company of any of its Subsidiaries.

 

(r)            No Consents Required. Except for the registration of the Shares under the Securities Act, and applicable state securities laws, and such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be required by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) and The Nasdaq Global Market in connection with the purchase and sale of the Shares hereunder and the listing of the Shares on The Nasdaq Global Market, no consent, approval, authorization or order of, or filing, qualification or registration (each an “Authorization”) with, any court, governmental or regulatory agency or body, foreign or domestic, which has not been made, obtained or taken and is not in full force and effect, is required for the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and any Terms Agreement by the Company, the issuance and sale of the Shares or the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby; and no event has occurred that allows or results in, or after notice or lapse of time or both would allow or result in, revocation, suspension, termination or invalidation of any such Authorization or any other impairment of the rights of the holder or maker of any such Authorization.

 

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(s)            No Material Actions or Proceedings. Except as set forth in the Prospectus, there is no legal or governmental proceeding to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or of which any property or assets of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is the subject, including any proceeding before the United States Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“FDA”) or comparable federal, state, local or foreign governmental bodies (it being understood that the interaction between the Company and the FDA and such comparable governmental bodies relating to the development and product approval process shall not be deemed proceedings for purposes of this representation), which is required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus and is not described therein, or which, singularly or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and no such proceedings are threatened or, to the Company’s knowledge after reasonable investigation and due diligence inquiry (“Knowledge”), contemplated by governmental or regulatory authorities or threatened by others. The Company is in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, regulations, orders and decrees governing its business as prescribed by the FDA, or any other federal, state or foreign agencies or bodies engaged in the regulation of pharmaceuticals or biohazardous substances or materials, except where noncompliance would not, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. All studies, tests, and preclinical and clinical studies conducted by or on behalf of the Company to support approval for commercialization of the Company’s product candidates have been conducted by the Company, or to the Company’s Knowledge by third parties, in compliance with all applicable federal, state or foreign laws, rules, orders and regulations, except for such failure or failures to be in compliance as could not reasonably be expected to have, singularly or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is a party to any corporate integrity agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, or similar agreements with or imposed by any governmental or regulatory authority. Additionally, neither the Company, any of its Subsidiaries nor any of their respective employees, officers, directors, or agents has been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any U.S. federal health care program or human clinical research or, to the Knowledge of the Company, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that could reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion.

 

(t)            No Violation or Default. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws (or analogous governing instrument, as applicable), (ii) in default in any respect, and no event has occurred which, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement, lease or other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it is bound or to which any of its property or assets is subject or (iii) in violation of any law, ordinance, governmental rule, regulation or court order, decree or judgment to which it or its property or assets may be subject (including, without limitation, those administered by the FDA or by any foreign, federal, state or local governmental or regulatory authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA) except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such violation or default that would not, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(u)           Licenses or Permits. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries possess all licenses, certificates, authorizations and permits issued by, and have made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate local, state, federal or foreign governmental or regulatory agencies or bodies (including, without limitation, those administered by the FDA or by any foreign, federal, state or local governmental or regulatory authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA) that are necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or the conduct of their respective businesses as described in the Prospectus (collectively, the “Governmental Permits”) except where any failures to possess or make the same would not, singularly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance with all such Governmental Permits, except where any noncompliance would not have a Material Adverse Effect; all such Governmental Permits are valid and in full force and effect, except where the validity or failure to be in full force and effect would not reasonably be expected to, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received notification of any revocation, modification, suspension, termination or invalidation (or proceedings related thereto) of any such Governmental Permit and the Company has no reason to believe that any such Governmental Permit will not be renewed.

 

(v)           Regulatory Matters. The studies, tests and preclinical or clinical trials conducted by or on behalf of the Company that are described in the Prospectus (the “Company Studies and Trials”) were and, if still pending, are being, conducted in all material respects in accordance with experimental protocols, procedures and controls pursuant to, where applicable, accepted professional scientific standards; the descriptions of the results of the Company Studies and Trials contained in the Prospectus are accurate in all material respects; the Company has no Knowledge of any other studies or trials not described in the Prospectus, the results of which are inconsistent with or call into question the results described or referred to in the Prospectus; and the Company has not received any notices or correspondence from the FDA or any foreign, state or local governmental body exercising comparable authority requiring the termination, suspension or material modification of any Company Studies and Trials that would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect and, to the Company’s Knowledge, there are no reasonable grounds for the same. The Company has obtained (or caused to be obtained) informed consent by or on behalf of each human subject who participated in the Company Studies and Trials. In using or disclosing patient information received by the Company in connection with the Company Studies and Trials, the Company has complied in all material respects with all applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, including, without limitation, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and the rules and regulations thereunder. To the Company’s Knowledge, none of the Company Studies and Trials involved any investigator who has been disqualified as a clinical investigator or has been found by the FDA to have engaged in scientific misconduct. To the Company’s Knowledge, the manufacturing facilities and operations of its suppliers are operated in compliance in all material respects with all applicable statutes, rules, regulations and policies of the FDA and comparable regulatory agencies outside of the United States to which the Company is subject.

 

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(w)           Privacy Laws. The Company and its Subsidiaries are, and take all necessary actions to be, in material compliance with all internal and external privacy policies, industry standards, all applicable statutes, judgments, orders, rules, regulations of any court or arbitrator or other governmental or regulatory entity, any other legal obligations, and applicable data privacy and security laws and regulations, including, without limitation, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (“HIPAA”), as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (the “HITECH Act”) (42 U.S.C. Section 17921 et seq.); the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”); the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) (EU 2016/679) (collectively, “Privacy Laws”) and any other applicable contractual obligation, in each case relating to the collection, use, transfer, import, export, storage, protection, disposal and disclosure by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of personal, personally identifiable, household, sensitive, confidential or regulated data (“Data Security Obligations”). To ensure compliance with the Data Security Obligations, the Company and its Subsidiaries have in place, comply with, and take appropriate steps reasonably designed to ensure compliance in all material respects with their policies and procedures relating to data privacy and security and the collection, storage, use, disclosure, handling and analysis of Personal Data (the “Policies”). “Personal Data” means (i) a natural persons’ name, street address, telephone number, email address, photograph, social security number, bank information, or customer or account number; (ii) any information which would qualify as “personally identifying information” under the Federal Trade Commission Act, as amended; (iii) Protected Health Information as defined by HIPAA; (iv) “personal data” as defined by GDPR; and (v) any other piece of information that allows the identification of such natural person, or his or her family, or permits the collection or analysis of any data related to an identified person’s health or sexual orientation.2 To the Knowledge of the Company, the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement, any Terms Agreement or any other agreement referred to in this Agreement will not result in a breach of any Privacy Laws or Policies. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries (i) has received notice of any actual or potential liability under or relating to, or actual or potential violation of, any of the Privacy Laws, and has no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice; (ii) is currently conducting or paying for, in whole or in part, any investigation, remediation or other corrective action pursuant to any Privacy Law; (iii) is a party to any order, decree, or agreement that imposed any obligation or liability under any Privacy Law or (iv) is a party to any action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body pending or threatened alleging non-compliance with any Data Security Obligation.

 

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(x)            Tax Law Compliance. The Company and its Subsidiaries each (i) have timely filed all necessary federal, state, local and foreign tax returns, and all such returns were true, complete and correct in all material respects, (ii) have paid all federal, state, local and foreign taxes, for which it is liable, including, without limitation, all sales and use taxes and all taxes which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is obligated to withhold from amounts owing to employees, creditors and third parties, and (iii) do not have any tax deficiency or claims outstanding or assessed or, to its Knowledge, proposed against any of them, except those, in each of the cases described in clauses (i), (ii) and (iii) above, that would not reasonably be expected to, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(y)            Company Not an “Investment Company”. The Company has been advised of the rules and requirements under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”). The Company is not, and after receipt of payment for the Common Stock will not be, an “investment company” within the meaning of Investment Company Act.

 

(z)            Insurance. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries carry, or are covered by, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as the Company reasonably believes is adequate for the conduct of their respective businesses and the value of their respective properties. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business at a cost that would not have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has received written notice from any insurer, agent of such insurer or the broker of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries that any material capital improvements or any other material expenditures (other than premium payments) are required or necessary to be made in order to continue such insurance.

 

(aa)        No Price Stabilization or Manipulation. The Company has not taken and will not take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that would be reasonably expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares.

 

(bb)        Exchange Act Compliance. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, at the time they were or hereafter are filed with the Commission, complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, at the Settlement Dates, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(cc)        No Unlawful Contributions or Other Payments. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any director, officer, employee, agent, affiliate or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any Subsidiary has (i) used any corporate funds for any unlawful contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful expense relating to political activity; (ii) made any direct or indirect unlawful payment to any foreign or domestic government officials or employees, political parties or campaigns, political party officials, or candidates for political office from corporate funds; (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or any applicable anti-corruption laws, rules, or regulations of any other jurisdiction in which the Company or any Subsidiary conducts business; or (iv) made any other unlawful bribe, rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback or other unlawful payment to any person.

 

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(dd)       Compliance with Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with all applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the U.S. Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), and the applicable anti-money laundering statutes of jurisdictions where the Company and its Subsidiaries conduct business, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”), and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority, body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its Subsidiaries with respect to Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending, or to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

 

(ee)        Compliance with OFAC.

 

(A)Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries, nor any director, officer or employee thereof, nor to the Company’s knowledge, any agent, affiliate, representative, or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, is an individual or entity (“Person”) that is, or is owned or controlled by a Person that is: (i) the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, His Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor (ii) located, organized, or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of a U.S. government embargo (including, without limitation, the so-called Donetsk People’s Republic, the so-called Luhansk People’s Republic, the Crimea Region of Ukraine, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Syria).

 

(B)The Company will not, directly or indirectly, use the Net Proceeds, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such Net Proceeds to any Subsidiary, joint venture partner or other Person: (i) to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any Person that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions, or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of a U.S. government embargo; or (ii) in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any Person (including Cowen).

 

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(C)For the past five (5) years, the Company and its Subsidiaries have not knowingly engaged in, are not now knowingly engaged in, and will not engage in, any direct or indirect dealings or transactions with any Person that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions or any country or territory that, at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of a U.S. government embargo.

 

(ff)          Accounting Controls. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries maintains a system of “internal control over financial reporting” (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the General Rules and Regulations under the Exchange Act (the “Exchange Act Rules”)) that complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act and has been designed by their respective principal executive and principal financial officers, or under their supervision, to provide reasonable assurances that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. To the Knowledge of the Company, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting is effective. Except as described in the Prospectus, since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been (A) no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and (B) no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

(gg)        Disclosure Controls. The Company and its Subsidiaries maintain disclosure controls and procedures (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act Rules) that comply with the requirements of the Exchange Act; such disclosure controls and procedures have been reasonably designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company and its Subsidiaries in reports that they file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including controls and procedures designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management to allow timely decisions regarding disclosures. The Company and its Subsidiaries have conducted evaluations of the effectiveness of their disclosure controls as required by Rule 13a-15 of the Exchange Act.

 

(hh)        No Undisclosed Relationships. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any of its Subsidiaries on the one hand, and the directors, officers, stockholders (or analogous interest holders), customers or suppliers of the Company or any of its affiliates on the other hand, which is required to be described in the Prospectus and which is not so described.

 

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(ii)           Other At The Market Sales Agreements. The Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at the market” offering.

 

(jj)           Compliance with Environmental Laws. The Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance in all material respects with all foreign, federal, state and local rules, laws and regulations relating to the use, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous or toxic substances or waste and protection of health and safety or the environment which are applicable to their businesses (“Environmental Laws”). There has been no storage, generation, transportation, handling, treatment, disposal, discharge, emission, or other release of any kind of toxic or other wastes or other hazardous substances by, due to, or caused by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries (or, to the Company’s Knowledge, any other entity for whose acts or omissions the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is or may otherwise be liable) upon any of the property now or previously owned or leased by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, or upon any other property, in violation of any law, statute, ordinance, rule, regulation, order, judgment, decree or permit or which would, under any law, statute, ordinance, rule (including rule of common law), regulation, order, judgment, decree or permit, give rise to any liability that could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and there has been no disposal, discharge, emission or other release of any kind onto such property or into the environment surrounding such property of any toxic or other wastes or other hazardous substances with respect to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries has knowledge.

 

(kk)         Intellectual Property. The Company and its Subsidiaries own or possess the valid right to use all valid and enforceable patents, patent applications, trademarks, trademark registrations, service marks, service mark registrations, Internet domain name registrations, copyrights, copyright registrations, licenses, inventions, software, works of authorships, trade names, databases, formulae, know how, and other intellectual property (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems, or procedures) (collectively, “Intellectual Property Rights”) necessary to conduct their respective businesses as currently conducted, and as proposed to be conducted and described in the Prospectus. The Company and its Subsidiaries, collectively, own all right, title and interest in and to the Intellectual Property Rights described as owned by them in the Prospectus. The Company and its Subsidiaries have not received any opinion from their legal counsel concluding that any activities of their respective businesses infringe, misappropriate, or otherwise violate, valid and enforceable Intellectual Property Rights of any other person, and have not received written notice of any challenge, which to the Company’s Knowledge, is still pending, by any other person to the rights of the Company and its Subsidiaries with respect to any Intellectual Property Rights owned or used by the Company or its Subsidiaries. The Intellectual Property Rights owned by or, to the Company’s Knowledge, licensed to Company and its Subsidiaries has not been adjudged invalid or unenforceable by a court of competent jurisdiction or applicable government agency, in whole or in part. To the Company’s Knowledge, the Company and its Subsidiaries’ respective businesses have not given, and do not and will not give, rise to any infringement of, any misappropriation of, or other violation of, any valid and enforceable Intellectual Property Rights of any other person. All agreements for the development, license or use of the Intellectual Property Rights described in the Prospectus are valid, binding upon, and enforceable by or against the parties thereto in accordance to its terms. The Company has complied in all material respects with, and is not in breach nor has received any asserted or threatened claim of breach of any such agreement, and the Company has no knowledge of any breach or anticipated breach by any other person to any such agreement. No claim has been made against the Company alleging the infringement by the Company of any patent, trademark, service mark, trade name, copyright, trade secret, license in or other intellectual property right or franchise right of any person. The Company has taken all reasonable steps to protect, maintain and safeguard its Intellectual Property Rights, including the execution of appropriate nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements. The employment or engagement by the Company of each current and former employee and contractor, and their activities thereunder, has not and does not violate any prior or current employment agreement of such employee or contractor except where violations would not, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. Each such employee and contractor has signed an invention assignment agreement giving the Company and its Subsidiaries sole and exclusive rights to any Intellectual Property Rights developed by such person in connection with his or her employment or engagement, as applicable, with the Company or its Subsidiaries, except where such agreements were not signed would not, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. No government funding, facilities or resources of a university, college, other educational institution or research center or funding from third parties was used in the development of any Intellectual Property Rights that are owned or purported to be owned by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries and no governmental agency or body, university, college, other educational institution or research center has any claim or right in or to any such Intellectual Property Rights, other than as described in the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K. The consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and any Terms Agreement will not result in the loss or impairment of or payment of any additional amounts with respect to, nor require the consent of any other person in respect of, the Company's right to own, use, or hold for use any of the Intellectual Property Rights as owned, used or held for use in the conduct of the business as currently conducted. With respect to the use of the software in the Company's business as it is currently conducted, the Company has not experienced any material defects in such software, including any material error or omission in the processing of any transactions other than defects which have been corrected, and to the Company’s Knowledge, no such software contains any device or feature designed to disrupt, disable, or otherwise impair the functioning of any software or is subject to the terms of any "open source" or other similar license that provides for the source code of the software to be publicly distributed or dedicated to the public.

 

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(ll)           IT Systems. (i)(x)  There has been no security breach or attack or other compromise of or relating to any of the Company’s and its Subsidiaries’ information technology and computer systems, networks, hardware, software, data (including confidential information, trade secrets or other data of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or their respective customers, employees, suppliers, vendors, patient data, data from preclinical studies and any third party data maintained by or on behalf of them), equipment or technology (“IT Systems and Data”), and (y) the Company and its Subsidiaries have not been notified of, and have no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any security breach, attack or compromise to their IT Systems and Data, (ii) the Company and its Subsidiaries have complied, and are presently in compliance with, all applicable laws, statutes or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority and all industry guidelines, standards, internal policies, contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification and (iii) the Company and its Subsidiaries have used reasonable efforts to establish and maintain, and have established, maintained, implemented, and complied with, reasonable information technology, information security, cyber security and data protection controls, policies and procedures, including oversight, access controls, encryption, technological and physical safeguards and business continuity/disaster recovery and security plans that are designed to protect against and prevent breach, destruction, loss, unauthorized distribution, use, access, disablement, misappropriation or modification, or other compromise or misuse of or relating to the IT Systems and Data.

 

(mm)       Title to Real and Personal Property. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries have good and marketable title in and (in the case of real property) to, or have valid and marketable rights to lease or otherwise use, all items of real or personal property which are material to the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, security interests, claims and defects that (i) do not, singularly or in the aggregate, materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or (ii) could not reasonably be expected, singularly or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(nn)        No Labor Dispute. There is (A) no significant unfair labor practice complaint pending against the Company, or any of its Subsidiaries, nor to the Company’s Knowledge, threatened against it or any of its Subsidiaries, before the National Labor Relations Board, any state or local labor relation board or any foreign labor relations board, and no significant grievance or significant arbitration proceeding arising out of or under any collective bargaining agreement is so pending against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, or, to the Company’s Knowledge, threatened against it and (B) no labor disturbance by or dispute with, employees of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries exists or, to the Company’s Knowledge, is contemplated or threatened, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its or its Subsidiaries’ principal suppliers, manufacturers, customers or contractors, that could reasonably be expected, singularly or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company is not aware that any key employee or significant group of employees of the Company or any Subsidiary plans to terminate employment with the Company or any such Subsidiary.

 

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(oo)        Compliance with ERISA. No “prohibited transaction” (as defined in Section 406 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, including the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (“ERISA”), or Section 4975 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended from time to time (the “Code”)) or “accumulated funding deficiency” (as defined in Section 302 of ERISA) or any of the events set forth in Section 4043(b) of ERISA (other than events with respect to which the thirty (30)-day notice requirement under Section 4043 of ERISA has been waived) has occurred or could reasonably be expected to occur with respect to any employee benefit plan of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries which could, singularly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Each employee benefit plan of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is in compliance in all material respects with applicable law, including ERISA and the Code. The Company and its Subsidiaries have not incurred and could not reasonably be expected to incur material liability under Title IV of ERISA with respect to the termination of, or withdrawal from, any pension plan (as defined in ERISA). Each pension plan for which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries would have any liability that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified, and to the Company’s Knowledge, nothing has occurred, whether by action or by failure to act, which could, singularly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to cause the loss of such qualification.

 

(pp)        Sarbanes-Oxley Act. There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company or, to the Company’s Knowledge, any of the Company’s officers or directors, in their capacities as such, to comply with any provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), including Section 402 related to loans and Sections 302 and 906 related to certifications.

 

(qq)        Statistical and Market Data. The statistical and market related data included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes to be reliable and accurate, and such data agree with the sources from which they are derived.

 

(rr)          No Restrictions on Subsidiaries. Except as described in the Prospectus, no Subsidiary of the Company is currently prohibited, directly or indirectly, under any agreement or other instrument to which it is a party or is subject, from paying any dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution on such Subsidiary’s capital stock, from repaying to the Company any loans or advances to such Subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any of such Subsidiary’s properties or assets to the Company or any other Subsidiary of the Company.

 

(ss)         Forward-Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) contained in or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

 

(tt)          Listing. The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act and is listed on Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. All of the Shares that have been or may be sold under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement have been approved for listing on the Nasdaq, subject to official notice of issuance; the Company has taken all necessary actions to ensure that, upon and at all times after the Nasdaq shall have approved the Shares for listing, it will be in compliance with all applicable corporate governance requirements set forth in the Nasdaq’s listing rules that are then in effect.

 

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(uu)        Brokers. Except for Cowen, there is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement or by any Terms Agreement.

 

(vv)        Related Party Transactions. There are no business relationships or related-party transactions involving the Company or any Subsidiary or any other person required to be described in the Prospectus which have not been described as required.

 

(ww)       No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon Cowen or legal counsel for Cowen for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares.

 

Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to Cowen or to counsel for Cowen pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company to Cowen as to the matters set forth therein.

 

The Company acknowledges that Cowen and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 7 hereof, counsel to the Company and counsel to Cowen, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

 

7.            Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Cowen that:

 

(a)           Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), (i) the Company will notify Cowen promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon Cowen’s request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in Cowen’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Shares by Cowen (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Shares or a security convertible into the Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Cowen within a reasonable period of time before the filing and Cowen has not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement) and the Company will furnish to Cowen at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act, and (v) prior to the termination of this Agreement, the Company will notify Cowen if at any time the Registration Statement shall no longer be effective as a result of the passage of time pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act or otherwise. Prior to the initial sale of any Shares, the Company shall file a final Prospectus Supplement pursuant to Rule 424(b) relating to the Shares.

 

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(b)            Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise Cowen, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued.

 

(c)            Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Shares, (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify Cowen to suspend the offering of Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance.

 

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(d)            Listing of Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Shares to be listed on Nasdaq and to qualify the Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions as Cowen reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities or file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction.

 

(e)            Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to Cowen and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as Cowen may from time to time reasonably request and, at Cowen’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to Cowen to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

 

(f)            Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act.

 

(g)           Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated, in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay the following expenses all incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including, but not limited to, expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of each Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto, (ii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the Shares, (iii) the qualification of the Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(d) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for Cowen in connection therewith shall be paid by Cowen except as set forth in (vii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to Cowen of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, of the Commission, (vii) the filing fees and associated legal expenses of Cowen’s outside counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department, such legal expense reimbursement not to exceed $15,000 and, (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of Cowen’s counsel in an amount not to exceed $75,000.

 

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(h)           Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

 

(i)            Notice of Other Sales. During the pendency of any Placement Notice given hereunder, and for 5 trading days following the termination of any Placement Notice given hereunder, the Company shall provide Cowen notice as promptly as reasonably possible before it offers to sell, contracts to sell, sells, grants any option to sell or otherwise disposes of any shares of Common Stock (other than Shares offered pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement or any Terms Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Stock; provided, that such notice shall not be required in connection with the (i) issuance, grant or sale of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards pursuant to any stock option, stock bonus or other stock plan or arrangement described in the Prospectus, (ii) the issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition, merger or sale or purchase of assets, (iii) the issuance or sale of Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company may adopt from time to time provided the implementation of such is disclosed to Cowen in advance, or (iv) any shares of common stock issuable upon the exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding.

 

(j)            Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Shares hereunder or pursuant to a Terms Agreement, advise Cowen promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement.

 

(k)            Due Diligence Cooperation. The Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by Cowen or its agents in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby or by any Terms Agreement, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as Cowen may reasonably request.

 

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(l)            Required Filings Relating to Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market. The Company shall disclose in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and in its annual report on Form 10-K, the number of the Shares sold through Cowen under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, and the gross proceeds and Net Proceeds to the Company from the sale of the Shares and the compensation paid by the Company with respect to sales of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter or, in the case of an Annual Report on Form 10-K, during the fiscal year covered by such Annual Report and the fourth quarter of such fiscal year.

 

(m)          Bring-Down Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and each time (i) the Company files the Prospectus relating to the Shares or amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Shares; (ii) the Company files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act; (iii) the Company files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or (iv) the Company files a report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a "Bring-Down Date"); the Company shall furnish Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) within two (2) Trading Days of any Bring-Down Date if requested by Cowen. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall be waived for any Bring-Down Date occurring at a time at which no Agency Transaction is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Bring-Down Date) and the next occurring Bring-Down Date; provided, however, that such waiver shall not apply for any Bring-Down Date on which the Company files its annual report on Form 10-K. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Shares in an Agency Transaction following a Bring-Down Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide Cowen with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or Cowen sells any Shares pursuant to such Agency Transaction, the Company shall provide Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of the Placement Notice. With respect to any Principal Transaction pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) shall be delivered at the Principal Settlement Date.

 

(n)            Legal Opinion. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within two (2) Trading Days of each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen a written opinion and negative assurance letter of Cooley LLP (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent Bring-Down Dates, counsel may furnish Cowen with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that Cowen may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Bring-Down Date); and provided further, that Company Counsel will not be required to deliver a written opinion with respect to a Bring-Down Date pursuant to clause (iii) in Section 7(m) hereof. With respect to any Principal Transaction pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen on the Principal Settlement Date a written opinion of Company Counsel, or other counsel satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the Principal Settlement Date, substantially similar to the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(n)(i).

 

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(o)            Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within two (2) Trading Days of each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen letters (the "Comfort Letters"), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the Initial Comfort Letter) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter. With respect to any Principal Transaction pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Cowen, Comfort Letters at the Time of Sale, dated the date of such Time of Sale, and on the Principal Settlement Date, dated the Principal Settlement Date.

 

(p)            Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase the Common Stock to be issued and sold pursuant to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Shares other than Cowen; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of its common stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

 

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(q)            Insurance. The Company and its Subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged.

 

(r)            Compliance with Laws. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, all material environmental permits, licenses and other authorizations required by federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus, and the Company and each of its Subsidiaries shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations and with applicable environmental laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations could not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(s)            Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor its Subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act, assuming no change in the Commission’s current interpretation as to entities that are not considered an investment company.

 

(t)            Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Company will use its best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of, or dealings in, the Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.

 

(u)            No Offer to Sell. Other than a Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, neither Cowen nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than Cowen in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Common Stock hereunder.

 

(v)            Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and its Subsidiaries will use their best efforts to comply with all effective applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

 

(w)            Affirmation. Each Placement Notice delivered by the Company to Cowen and each execution and delivery by the Company of a Terms Agreement shall be deemed to be (i) an affirmation that the representations, warranties and agreements of the Company herein contained and contained in any certificate delivered to Cowen pursuant hereto are true and correct at the time of delivery of such Placement Notice or the date of such Terms Agreement, as the case may be, and (ii) an undertaking that such representations, warranties and agreements will be true and correct on any applicable Time of Sale and Settlement Date, as though made at and as of each such time (it being understood that such representations, warranties and agreements shall relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of such Placement Notice acceptance or Terms Agreement, as the case may be).

 

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(x)            Renewal. If immediately prior to the third anniversary (the “Renewal Deadline”) of the initial effective date of the Registration Statement, the aggregate gross sales price of Shares sold by the Company is less than the Maximum Amount and this Agreement has not expired or been terminated, the Company may, in its sole discretion, prior to the Renewal Deadline, file, if it has not already done so and is eligible to do so, a new shelf registration statement relating to the Shares, in a form reasonably satisfactory to Cowen, and, if not automatically effective, will use its best efforts to cause such registration statement to be declared effective within 60 days after the Renewal Deadline. The Company will take all other action necessary or appropriate to permit the issuance and sale of the Shares to continue as contemplated in the expired registration statement relating to the Shares. References herein to the Registration Statement shall include such new shelf registration statement.

 

8.            Conditions to Cowen’s Obligations. The obligations of Cowen hereunder with respect to a Placement Notice or pursuant to any Terms Agreement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and thereunder, to the completion by Cowen of a due diligence review satisfactory to Cowen in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by Cowen in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

 

(a)            Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for (i) all sales of Shares issued pursuant to all prior Placement Notices or any Terms Agreements and (ii) the sale of all Shares contemplated to be issued pursuant to any Placement Notice or any Terms Agreement.

 

(b)            No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, related Prospectus or such documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

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(c)            No Misstatement or Material Omission. Cowen shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion, in consultation with outside counsel, is material, or omits to state a fact that in Cowen’s opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

 

(d)            Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

 

(e)            Company Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received the opinion and negative assurance letter of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

 

(f)            Cowen Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received from Davis Polk & Wardwell, LLP, counsel for Cowen, such opinion and negative assurance letter, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as Cowen may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for enabling them to pass upon such matters.

 

(g)            Comfort Letter. Cowen shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(o).

 

(h)            Representation Certificate. Cowen shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

(i)            Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and at each Principal Settlement Date, Cowen shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate secretary, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel.

 

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(j)            No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on Nasdaq.

 

(k)            Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to Cowen such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as Cowen may have reasonably requested. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company will furnish Cowen with such conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as Cowen shall have reasonably requested.

 

(l)            Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder or prior to any Principal Settlement Date shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424. The Company shall file a prospectus supplement or a supplement to a prospectus supplement in connection with any Principal Transaction pursuant to a Terms Agreement within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

 

(m)          Approval for Listing. The Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.

 

(n)           No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit Cowen to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

 

9.            Indemnification and Contribution.

 

(a)           Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless Cowen, the directors, officers, partners, employees and agents of Cowen and each person, if any, who (i) controls Cowen within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with Cowen from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including, but not limited to, any and all reasonable and documented investigative, legal and other expenses incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with Section 9(c)) of, any action, suit or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party, or otherwise, or any claim asserted), as and when incurred, to which Cowen, or any such person, may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Common Stock under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated in it or necessary to make the statements in it not misleading or (z) any breach by any of the indemnifying parties of any of their respective representations, warranties and agreements contained in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement and is caused directly or indirectly by an untrue statement or omission, or alleged untrue statements or omission, made in reliance upon and in conformity with solely Agent’s Information. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

 

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(b)           Cowen Indemnification. Cowen agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company that signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.

 

(c)           Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable and documented costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the reasonable and documented fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable and documented time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising or that may arise out of such claim, action or proceeding.

 

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(d)            Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or Cowen, the Company and Cowen will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than Cowen, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and Cowen may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by Cowen from the sale of Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and Cowen, on the other, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or Cowen, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and Cowen agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(d) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 9(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(d), Cowen shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of Cowen, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(d), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(d) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.

 

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10.            Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of Cowen, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

 

11.            Termination.

 

(a)            Cowen shall have the right by giving notice as hereinafter specified at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect has occurred that, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen, may materially impair the ability of Cowen to sell the Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; provided, however, in the case of any failure of the Company to deliver (or cause another person to deliver) any certification, opinion, or letter required under Sections 7(m), 7(n), or 7(o), Cowen’s right to terminate shall not arise unless such failure to deliver (or cause to be delivered) continues for more than thirty (30) days from the date such delivery was required (other than when an Agency Transaction is pending); (iii) any other condition of Cowen’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, or (iv) any suspension or limitation of trading in the Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g) (Expenses), Section 9 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 10 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 16 (Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction) and Section 17 (Waiver of Jury Trial) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If Cowen elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), Cowen shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 12 (Notices).

 

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(b)            In the case of any purchase by Cowen pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the obligations of Cowen pursuant to such Terms Agreement shall be subject to termination by Cowen at any time prior to or at the Principal Settlement Date if (A) since the time of execution of the Terms Agreement or the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, (i) there has been any Material Adverse Effect or material change in the senior management of the Company, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business; or (ii) there has occurred any outbreak or escalation of hostilities or other national or international calamity or crisis or change in economic, political or other conditions, the effect of which on the United States or international financial markets is such as to make it, in Cowen’s judgment, impracticable to market the Shares or enforce contracts for the sale of the Shares; or (iii) if trading in any securities of the Company has been suspended by the Commission or by the Nasdaq, or if trading generally on the Nasdaq over-the-counter market or the New York Stock Exchange has been suspended (including an automatic halt in trading pursuant to market-decline triggers, other than those in which solely program trading is temporarily halted), or limitations on prices for trading (other than limitations on hours or numbers of days of trading) have been fixed, or maximum ranges for prices for securities have been required, by such exchange or FINRA or the over-the-counter market or by order of the Commission or any other governmental authority; or (iv) if there has been any downgrade in the rating of any of the Company’s debt securities or preferred stock by any “nationally recognized statistical rating organization” (as defined under Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act); or (v) any federal, state, local or foreign statute, regulation, rule or order of any court or other governmental authority has been enacted, published, decreed or otherwise promulgated which, in the opinion of Cowen, would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change; or (vi) any action has been taken by any federal, state, local or foreign government or agency in respect of its monetary or fiscal affairs which, in the opinion of Cowen, would reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the securities markets in the United States. If Cowen elects to terminate its obligations pursuant to this Section 11(b), the Company shall be notified promptly in writing.

 

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(c)            The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(d)            Cowen shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(e)            Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Shares through Cowen on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(f)            This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), (d) or (e) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.

 

(g)            Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by Cowen or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Shares, such Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

 

12.            Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to Cowen, shall be delivered to Cowen at Cowen and Company, LLC, 599 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10022, fax no. 646-562-1124, Attention: General Counsel; or if sent to the Company, shall be delivered to Atreca, Inc., 835 Industrial Road, Suite 400, San Carlos, CA 94070, Attention: General Counsel, email: cphillips@atreca.com; with a copy to Cooley LLP, 3175 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, California 94304, Attention: John T. McKenna, Fax: (650) 849-7400, email: jmckenna@cooley.com. Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable electronic transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day (as defined below), or, if such day is not a Business Day on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

 

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13.            Successors and Assigns. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and Cowen and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 9 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement or any such Terms Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement or such Terms Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement or any Terms Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that Cowen may assign its rights and obligations hereunder or under any Terms Agreement to an affiliate of Cowen without obtaining the Company’s consent.

 

14.            Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

 

15.            Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto), together with any Terms Agreement, constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement, nor any Terms Agreement, nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and Cowen. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement and any Terms Agreement.

 

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16.            Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York without regard to the principles of conflicts of laws. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any transaction contemplated hereby or by any Terms Agreement, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

 

17.            Waiver of Jury Trial. The Company and Cowen each hereby irrevocably waives any right it may have to a trial by jury in respect of any claim based upon or arising out of this Agreement, any Terms Agreement or any transaction contemplated hereby or thereby.

 

18.            Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

 

(a)            Cowen has been retained solely to act as an arm’s length contractual counterparty to the Company in connection with the sale of the Shares contemplated hereby and any Terms Agreement and that no fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship between the Company and Cowen has been created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, irrespective of whether Cowen has advised or is advising the Company on other matters;

 

(b)            the Company is capable of evaluating and understanding and understands and accepts the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement;

 

(c)            the Company has been advised that Cowen and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that Cowen has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship; and

 

(d)            the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against Cowen, for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty and agrees that Cowen shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders, partners, employees or creditors of the Company.

 

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19.            Counterparts. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement or any Terms Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission.

 

20.            Recognition of the U.S. Special Resolution Regimes.

 

(a)            In the event that Cowen is a Covered Entity and becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, the transfer from Cowen of this Agreement, and any interest and obligation in or under this Agreement, will be effective to the same extent as the transfer would be effective under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement, and any such interest and obligation, were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

 

(b)            In the event that Cowen is a Covered Entity and Cowen or a BHC Act Affiliate of Cowen becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, Default Rights under this Agreement that may be exercised against Cowen are permitted to be exercised to no greater extent than such Default Rights could be exercised under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

 

(c)            For purposes of this Section 20; (a) “BHC Act Affiliate” has the meaning assigned to the term “affiliate” in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 U.S.C. § 1841(k), (b) “Covered Entity” means any of the following: (i) a “covered entity” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 252.82(b); (ii) a “covered bank” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 47.3(b); or (iii) a “covered FSI” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 382.2(b), (c) “Default Right” has the meaning assigned to that term in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. §§ 252.81, 47.2 or 382.1, as applicable, and (d) “U.S. Special Resolution Regime” means each of (i) the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder and (ii) Title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

 

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If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and Cowen, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and Cowen.

 

  Very truly yours,
   
  COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC
   
  By: /s/ Michael Murphy
    Name: Michael Murphy
    Title: Managing Director
   
  ACCEPTED as of the date
  first-above written:
   
  ATRECA, INC.
   
  By: /s/ John A. Orwin
  Name: John A. Orwin
  Title: President and CEO

 

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SCHEDULE 1

 

form of PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From:[                                    ]
Cc:[                                    ]
To: [                                    ]
Subject: Cowen At the Market Offering—Placement Notice

 

Gentlemen:

 

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between Atreca, Inc. (the “Company”) and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), dated July 18, 2023 (the “Agreement”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that Cowen sell up to 91,521,058 shares of the Company’s Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, at a minimum market price of $_______ per share. Sales should begin on the date of this Notice and shall continue until [DATE] [all shares are sold].

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 2

 

Notice Parties

 

Company
John A. Orwin, Chief Executive Officer
Herbert Cross, Chief Financial Officer
Courtney Phillips, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary

 

Cowen
Michael Murphy, Managing Director
Karen Reni O’Reilly, Director

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 3

 

Compensation

 

Cowen shall be paid compensation up to 3% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Shares in an Agency Transaction pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.

 

 

 

 

EXHIBIT 2(b)

 

Atreca, inc.

 

[_________________] SHARES

 


terms AGREEMENT

 

____, 20__

 

Cowen and Company, LLC

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10022

 

Ladies & Gentlemen:

 

Atreca, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), proposes, subject to the terms and conditions stated herein and in the Sales Agreement, dated July 18, 2023 (the “Sales Agreement”), between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), to issue and sell to Cowen the securities specified in the Schedule hereto (the “Purchased Securities”). Unless otherwise defined below, terms defined in the Sales Agreement shall have the same meanings when used herein.

 

Each of the provisions of the Sales Agreement not specifically related to the solicitation by Cowen, as agent of the Company, of offers to purchase securities is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, and shall be deemed to be part of this Terms Agreement to the same extent as if such provisions had been set forth in full herein. Each of the representations, warranties and agreements set forth therein shall be deemed to have been made as of the date of this Terms Agreement and the Settlement Date set forth in the Schedule hereto.

 

An amendment to the Registration Statement or a supplement to the Prospectus, as the case may be, relating to the Purchased Securities, in the form heretofore delivered to Cowen, is now proposed to be filed with the Commission.

 

Subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein and in the Sales Agreement which are incorporated herein by reference, the Company agrees to issue and sell to Cowen, and Cowen agrees to purchase from the Company, the Purchased Securities at the time and place and at the purchase price set forth in the Schedule hereto.

 

 

 

 

Notwithstanding any provision of the Sales Agreement or this Terms Agreement to the contrary, the Company consents to Cowen trading in the Common Stock for Cowen’s own account and for the account of its clients at the same time as sales of the Purchased Securities occur pursuant to this Terms Agreement.

 

If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding, please sign and return to us a counterpart hereof, whereupon this Terms Agreement, including those provisions of the Sales Agreement incorporated herein by reference, shall constitute a binding agreement between Cowen and the Company.

 

  ATRECA, INC.
 
  By:               
  Name:
  Title:

 

Accepted and agreed as of

the date first above written:

 

COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC

 

By:    
Name:  
Title:      

 

2

 

 

Schedule to Terms Agreement

 

Title of Purchased Securities:

 

Class A Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

 

Number of Shares of Purchased Securities:

 

[] Shares

 

Purchase Price Payable by Cowen:

 

$[] per Share

 

Method of and Specified Funds for Payment of Purchase Price:

 

[By wire transfer to a bank account specified by the Company in same day funds.]

 

Method of Delivery:

 

[To Cowen’s account, or the account of Cowen’s designee, at The Depository Trust Company via DWAC in return for payment of the purchase price.]

 

Settlement Date:

 

[], 20[]

 

Closing Location:

 

[]

 

Documents to be Delivered:

 

The following documents referred to in the Sales Agreement shall be delivered on the Settlement Date as a condition to the closing for the Purchased Securities (which documents shall be dated on or as of the Settlement Date and shall be appropriately updated to cover any Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses and any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses and any documents incorporated by reference therein):

 

(1) the opinion and negative assurance letter referred to in Section 8(e);
(2) the opinion and negative assurance letter referred to in Section 8(f)
(3) the “comfort letter” referred to in Section 8(g);
(4) the representation certificate referred to in Section 8(h);
(5) the secretary’s certificate referred to in Section 8(i)

(6) such other documents as Cowen shall reasonably request.

 

3

 

 

Time of sale: [] [a.m./p.m.] (New York City time) on [], []

 

Time of sale information:

 

  The number of shares of Purchased Securities set forth above.

 

4

 

 

 

Exhibit 7(m)

 

OFFICER CERTIFICATE

 

The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected _______________________, of Atreca, Inc. (“Company”), a Delaware corporation, does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement dated July 18, 2023 (the “Sales Agreement”) between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, that to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned:

 

(i)            The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date; and

 

(ii)           The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

 

Cooley LLP and Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP shall be entitled to rely upon this certificate in connection with the respective opinions and negative assurance letters such firms are rendering pursuant to the Sales Agreement.

 

  Atreca, Inc
   
  By:   
    Name: 
    Title:

 

Date: ________________    

 

 

 

 

EXHIBIT 7(n)(i)

 

LEGAL OPINION

 

[To be circulated separately.]

 

2

 

Exhibit 4.6

ATRECA, INC.,
Issuer

AND

[TRUSTEE],
Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of [•], 20

Debt Securities

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE
ARTICLE 1    DEFINITIONS 1
Section 1.01 Definitions of Terms 1
ARTICLE 2    ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES 5
Section 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities 5
Section 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate 8
Section 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment 8
Section 2.04 Execution and Authentications 10
Section 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange 10
Section 2.06 Temporary Securities 12
Section 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities 12
Section 2.08 Cancellation 13
Section 2.09 Benefits of Indenture 13
Section 2.10 Authenticating Agent 13
Section 2.11 Global Securities 14
Section 2.12 CUSIP Numbers 15
ARTICLE 3    REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS 15
Section 3.01 Redemption 15
Section 3.02 Notice of Redemption 15
Section 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption 17
Section 3.04 Sinking Fund 17
Section 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 17
Section 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 18
ARTICLE 4    COVENANTS 18
Section 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest 18
Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency 18
Section 4.03 Paying Agents 19
Section 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee 20

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

(CONTINUED)

PAGE
ARTICLE 5    SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE 20
Section 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders 20
Section 5.02 Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders 20
Section 5.03 Reports by the Company 21
Section 5.04 Reports by the Trustee 21
ARTICLE 6    REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT 22
Section 6.01 Events of Default 22
Section 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 24
Section 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected 25
Section 6.04 Limitation on Suits 25
Section 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver 26
Section 6.06 Control by Securityholders 26
Section 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs 27
ARTICLE 7    CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE 27
Section 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee 27
Section 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee 29
Section 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities 31
Section 7.04 May Hold Securities 31
Section 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust 31
Section 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement 31
Section 7.07 Reliance on Officer’s Certificate 32
Section 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests 32
Section 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility 33
Section 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor 33
Section 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment by Successor 34
Section 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business 35
Section 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company 36
Section 7.14 Notice of Default 36

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

(CONTINUED)

PAGE
ARTICLE 8    CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS 36
Section 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders 36
Section 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders 37
Section 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners 37
Section 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded 37
Section 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders 38
ARTICLE 9    SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES 38
Section 9.01 Supplemental Indentures without the Consent of Securityholders 38
Section 9.02 Supplemental Indentures with Consent of Securityholders 39
Section 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures 40
Section 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures 40
Section 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures 40
ARTICLE 10    SUCCESSOR ENTITY 41
Section 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc. 41
Section 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted 41
ARTICLE 11    SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE 42
Section 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 42
Section 11.02 Discharge of Obligations 42
Section 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust 43
Section 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents 43
Section 11.05 Repayment to Company 43
ARTICLE 12    IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS 43
Section 12.01 No Recourse 43

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

(CONTINUED)

PAGE
ARTICLE 13    MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 44
Section 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns 44
Section 13.02 Actions by Successor 44
Section 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers 44
Section 13.04 Notices 44
Section 13.05 Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver 45
Section 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt 45
Section 13.07 Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent 45
Section 13.08 Payments on Business Days 46
Section 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act 46
Section 13.10 Counterparts 46
Section 13.11 Severability 46
Section 13.12 Compliance Certificates 46
Section 13.13 U.S.A. Patriot Act 47
Section 13.14 Force Majeure 47
Section 13.15 Table of Contents; Headings 47

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INDENTURE

INDENTURE, dated as of [•], 20  , among ATRECA, INC., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [TRUSTEE], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS

Section 1.01     Definitions of Terms.

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

Authenticating Agent” means the Trustee or an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors (or the functional equivalent thereof) of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors (or duly authorized committee thereof) and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

Company” means ATRECA, INC., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at .

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

Exchange Act” means the United States Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder.

The term “given”, “mailed”, “notify” or “sent” with respect to any notice to be given to a Securityholder pursuant to this Indenture, shall mean notice (x) given to the Depositary (or its designee) pursuant to the standing instructions from the Depositary or its designee, including by electronic mail in accordance with accepted practices or procedures at the Depositary (in the case of a Global Security) or (y) mailed to such Holder by first class mail, postage prepaid, at its address as it appears on the Security Register (in the case of a definitive Security). Notice so “given” shall be deemed to include any notice to be “mailed” or “delivered,” as applicable, under this Indenture.

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Global Security” means a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

herein”, “hereofand “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a president, a chief financial officer, a chief operating officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, the controller or any assistant controller or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

3

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article Three, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and in each case who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security is registered on the Security Register kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings as set forth in Section 2.05.

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.

4

Trustee” means                        , and, subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

“U.S.A. Patriot Act” means the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107-56, as amended and signed into law October 26, 2001.

ARTICLE 2

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

Section 2.01          Designation and Terms of Securities.

(a)            The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

(1)            the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

(2)            any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

(3)            the maturity date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;

(4)            the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the certificate of authentication for such series;

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(5)            the applicability of any guarantees;

(6)            whether or not the Securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

(7)            whether the Securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

(8)            if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such Securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

(9)            the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

(10)          the Company’s right, if any, to defer the payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

(11)          if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, the Company may at its option, redeem the series of Securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

(12)          the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which the Company is obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the Securityholder’s option to purchase, the series of Securities and the currency or currency unit in which the Securities are payable;

(13)          the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable, if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof;

(14)          any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

(15)          whether the Securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a Global Security or Securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such Global Security or Securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual Securities; and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities;

6

(16)            if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange, which may, without limitation, include the payment of cash as well as the delivery of securities;

(17)            if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

(18)            additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the series of Securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

(19)            additions to or changes in the Events of Default with respect to the Securities and any change in the right of the Trustee or the Securityholders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such Securities to be due and payable;

(20)            additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

(21)            additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture;

(22)            additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of this Indenture both with and without the consent of Securityholders of Securities issued under this Indenture;

(23)            the currency of payment of Securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

(24)            whether interest will be payable in cash or additional Securities at the Company’s or the Securityholders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

(25)            the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

(26)            any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series; and

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(27)            any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the Securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of this Indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

Section 2.02     Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, and they may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

Section 2.03     Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(13). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Subject to Section 2.01(a)(23), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption or repurchase thereof prior to maturity, and any cash amount due upon conversion or exchange thereof, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

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Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

(1)            The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be sent, to each Securityholder not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been sent as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register on such special record date.

(2)            The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities and any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the first day of the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

9

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

Section 2.04     Execution and Authentications.

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by one of its Officers. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.

The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an Officer (at the time of execution), notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by an Officer, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

Upon the Company’s delivery of any such authentication order to the Trustee at any time after the initial issuance of Securities under this Indenture, the Trustee shall be provided with, and (subject to Sections 315(a) through 315(d) of the Trust Indenture Act) shall be fully protected in relying upon, (1) an Opinion of Counsel or reliance letter and (2) an Officer’s Certificate stating that all conditions precedent to the execution, authentication and delivery of such Securities are in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

Section 2.05          Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

(a)            Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

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(b)            The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution or Supplemental Indenture (the “Security Registrar”).

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

The Company initially appoints the Trustee as initial Security Registrar for each series of Securities.

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

(c)            Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, no service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series or repurchase, conversion or exchange of less than the entire principal amount of a Security, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

(d)            The Company and the Security Registrar shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the sending of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such sending, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption or surrendered for repurchase, but not validly withdrawn, other than the unredeemed portion of any such Securities being redeemed in part or not surrendered for repurchase, as the case may be. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

The Trustee shall have no obligation or duty to monitor, determine or inquire as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer imposed under this Indenture or under applicable law with respect to any transfer of any interest in any Security (including any transfers between or among Depositary participants or beneficial owners of interests in any Global Security) other than to require delivery of such certificates and other documentation or evidence as are expressly required by, and to do so if and when expressly required by the terms of, this Indenture, and to examine the same to determine substantial compliance as to form with the express requirements hereof.

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Section 2.06     Temporary Securities.

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the Securityholders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

Section 2.07     Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

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Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

Section 2.08     Cancellation.

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, repurchase, exchange, registration of transfer or conversion shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent (or any other applicable agent), be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

Section 2.09     Benefits of Indenture.

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

Section 2.10     Authenticating Agent.

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption, repurchase or conversion thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

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Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

Section 2.11          Global Securities.

(a)            If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction (or if the Depositary names the Trustee as its custodian, retained by the Trustee), and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”